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Bhutan History

Bhutan - national flagBhutan - national flag

The flag was set in the 1960's, but its symbols were in use as early as the 1800's. The saffron color stands for the king's worldly authority, and orange is the color of Buddhism. The dragon, which illustrates the country's name, "the land of thunder dragons", holds pearls in its claws as a sign of wealth and perfection.

  • Countryaah: What does the flag of Bhutan look like? Follow this link, then you will see the image in PNG format and flag meaning description about this country.

Bhutan (Religion)

Mahayana Buddhism in the Tibetan form is the state religion in Bhutan. The framework of religious life is the numerous monasteries scattered around the country. Of particular importance are the large monastery castles (dzong), which are state monasteries and at the same time the seat of the local administration. Nearly five thousand monks serve the many Buddhist monasteries and shrines. The monks perform tasks other than religious and social. They often act as both doctors and astrologers. The head of the monastic order (je kempo) is the highest religious authority of all Buddhist institutions. According to tradition, Buddhism was introduced in the 700's. of Padmasambhava. In the 1600's. gathered a Tibetan lama from the drupa kagyu sect, Ngawang Namgyal, the country and acquired both the spiritual and the secular power. His successors, who ruled the country until the early 1900's, were considered reincarnations by him.

The official state religion is not practiced by the entire population of Bhutan. The country consists of many ethnic groups, each with their own cultural characteristics. The largest ethnic group is called bhutia. Nearly 60% of the population belong to this group and are residents of northern and central Bhutan. They are of Tibetan origin and largely follow the Tibetan form of Buddhism. In the eastern part of the country, the most famous group, the Sherduk, is also of Tibetan origin. It is also a supporter of Lamaism, but in its religious practice elements from the pre-Buddhist Bon religion are often mixed. The Nepalese immigrants are Hindus and differ from the other ethnic groups.

  • TOPSCHOOLSINTHEUSA: Provides exam dates and a list of test centers for both GRE General Test and Subject Tests in Bhutan. Also includes GRE scoring information and test preparation tips throughout the country.

Bhutan - Constitution

Bhutan has had several features in common with a constitutional monarchy since 1968. A new constitutional proposal was adopted in 2005. The National Assembly has approximately 150 members (number may vary): 110 are elected for three years in direct elections, ten are Buddhist monks, and one is a representative of the industry; the rest are appointed by the government. The National Assembly must vote every three years on the trust of the king and is in theory able to depose him.

Bhutan History

Bhutan - art

The art of Bhutan is a pure religious art. It aims to visualize the deity and thought content of Mahayana Buddhism. Bhutanese art is difficult to distinguish from Tibetan. Art objects from the Himalayan area have long been known and valued outside the borders of these countries, thangkas (picture scrolls) and artfully crafted bronze figures.

The image composition of the Thangkas follows carefully established rules. Each deity is ascribed to a particular color and depicted with special attributes. In addition to the historical Buddha, the numerous other Buddhas belonging to the pantheon of Tibetan Buddhism are depicted. Among the Bodhisattvas, Avalokiteshvara is the most important. A very popular figure is Padmasambhava, who according to tradition brought Buddhism to Bhutan.

A common motif in Bhutanese visual art is the mandala, which adorns the walls and ceilings of temples and monasteries in the form of frescoes or is painted on thangkas. Mandalas are magical patterns and diagrams that are usually symbolic representations of divine palaces or of the universe of Buddhism.

Architecture, too, is to some extent governed by religion. The many stupas (chörten) that characterize the landscape are built to house relics of tall llamas and holy men; they are the object of daily worship. The temples are constructed as depictions of the universe as it appears in Buddhist cosmography; these are mandalas in architectural form.

Bhutan (History)

A real state formation in Bhutan took place in the early 1600's, when various powerful families were united under a theocratic rule, in which the monastic leaders of the Tibetan Buddhist drupa kagyu sect had great influence; the country's name, Druk Yul, refers to the sect. During the 1700's. internal contradictions grew, and the British colonial power in India began to assert itself; a peace treaty was signed in 1774. Growing unrest and border disputes led to British annexation of territories up to Assamagainst economic compensation in 1841 and again in 1865. As a buffer state between Tibet and British India, Bhutan took the side of the British. In 1907, the current hereditary monarchy was created, and the British promised by a treaty in 1910 to pay an annual maintenance and not interfere in Bhutan's internal administration, while Bhutan in turn agreed to align its foreign policy with British wishes. Bhutan has since been in the sphere of Indian influence, and in 1949 the independent India renewed the 1910 Treaty with increased annual payments. A slow process of modernization in the isolated, economically and technologically backward country began in the 1960's. Bhutan has for a number of years been marked by ethnic strife between the indigenous people and a large minority of (Hindu) Nepalese immigrants,

Rebel movements from Assam in India have established military bases in southeast Bhutan. They posed a major security problem and a political problem in relation to India; in 2003, Bhutan's armies drove the rebel groups out of the country.

In 2000, there was a breakthrough in negotiations with Nepal over the approximately 100,000 ethnic Nepalese who the Nepalese government claims have fled Bhutan and who now live in camps in eastern Nepal. A joint commission has been set up to assess who has the right to resettle in Bhutan, but the process is still unfinished. A series of bomb blasts in early 2008 has been linked to this ethnic conflict.

In 2005, the plans for a new constitution were announced, which as a result will have the introduction of parliamentary democracy. Former Crown Prince Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuk was proclaimed king in 2006. In the first free elections in Bhutan in 2008, the Royalist Bhutan Party for Peace and Welfare won 44 of the 47 seats in parliament. In the 2013 election, the opposition People's Democratic Party won 32 seats.

 

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