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Chad History

Chad - national flagChad - national flag

Chad - National Flag, The Flag was officially adopted in 1959. As a former French colony, the country chose a flag that combines the colors of the French tricolor with the Pan-African. The blue color is interpreted as a symbol of the sky as well as of hope and agriculture in the southern part of the country. The yellow stands for desert in the north and for the sun. The red for progress and unity and for the sacrifice of the citizens.

  • Countryaah: What does the flag of Chad look like? Follow this link, then you will see the image in PNG format and flag meaning description about this country.

Chad history

Chad History, The area's central location in relation to the Sahara trade routes formed, among other things. foundation of the kingdom of Kanem-Bornu, which from 800-t. occurred near Lake Chad. In the 1000-h. the ruling dynasty went over to Islam. Under the leadership of Idris Aloma (dead in the early 1600's), the kingdom expanded greatly. Kanem-Bornu and the other Muslim kingdoms in the Chad region, especially the Kingdom of Bagirmi (see Bagirmi) and the Sultanate of Wadai, were mainly based on slave trade; The slaves were captured in the south and driven north to markets along the Mediterranean and Arabia.

All the kingdoms were conquered by Rabih al-Zubayr of Sudan 1883-93. He tried unsuccessfully to slow down the French expansion from the south, which was initiated during the same period; in 1900 he was killed, after which France secured his dominion. While the southern peoples who suffered during the slave trade saw the French as liberators, the resistance was fierce in the north, and the armed resistance against the French continued after Chad became part of French Equatorial Africa in 1910. The French colonial government's efforts in political, economic and educational development were particularly limited in the north.

Chad History

  • TOPSCHOOLSINTHEUSA: Provides exam dates and a list of test centers for both GRE General Test and Subject Tests in Chad. Also includes GRE scoring information and test preparation tips throughout the country.
Presidents
1960-75 Ngarta Tombalbaye
1975-79 Félix Malloum
1979-82 Goukouni Oueddag
1982-90 Hissène Habré
1990 Idriss Déby

In 1946, Chad became a French overseas territory, and the same year the Nationalist Party Parti progressiste Chadien, PPT, was formed. The party became the country's strongest, and by the independence of 1960, PPT leader Tombalbaye became the country's first president. He made Chad a one-party state in 1962. In 1966 the rebel movement formed FROLINAT, which became the main opponent of the regime. The Tombalbaye regime soon came under severe pressure and was militarily supported by France from 1968-72. Libya supported FROLINAT and in 1973 seized the opportunity to invade the disputed border area of Aouzou.

In 1975, the military conducted a coup under which the unpopular Tombalbaye was killed. However, the new regime, led by Félix Malloum, only sharpened the contradictions in Chad; at the same time, FROLINAT was divided, and one of the faction leaders, Hissène Habré, was deployed as prime minister after French pressure in 1978. An immediate power struggle ensued between Habré and Malloum, which enabled Libyan-backed FROLINAT leader Goukouni Oueddei (b. 1947) to seize the capital and secure power. Habré became Minister of Defense, but the conflict continued, and many of Ndjamena's residents fled the country. Habré had to flee to Sudan in 1980, but returned and exiled Goukouni in exile in Libya in 1982. The conflict eventually developed into a war between Chad and Libya, in which Habré was supported by the United States and France. Habré's brutal rule lasted until 1990, when Idriss Déby succeeded, former leader of Chad's army, to topple Habré. Internal ethnic strife, strikes and Habré's destabilization efforts from the Senegal exile contributed to continued unrest in Chad, but Déby's pledges to introduce democracy were met with the 1996 presidential election, which he himself won. The 1990's were more peaceful than the previous decades, and peace agreements came into being with many of the rebel movements and with Libya. In 1998, however, there were border disputes with Nigeria, and the same year, former Defense Minister Youssouf Togoimi launched a riot in northern Chad.

Chad's opportunities for economic development have been severely constrained by the many armed conflicts, and the country, one of the poorest in the world, has only been able to survive for periods through foreign aid alone.

Déby was re-elected in 2001, and through a 2005 referendum he removed the constitution's restrictions on the number of presidential terms. In 2006, he was re-elected. The election result was not recognized by the opposition. The civil war in Sudan's Darfur province threatens to spread to Chad, which has contributed to a tense relationship between the two countries. Thus, Chad accused Sudan of supporting Chadian rebel groups' attacks from Sudan into eastern Chad. In November 2006, the state of emergency was introduced in the areas adjacent to Darfur. A newly formed alliance of rebel groups attacked the capital, Ndjamena in February 2008. After fierce fighting, however, the rebels had to retreat, and President Déby regained control of the city.

The relationship between Chad and Sudan has been sought to improve, and in 2010 the presidents of the two countries met to normalize the relationship. In 2011, Déby won the presidential post for the fourth time, but the election was boycotted by the opposition. In 2013, the security forces succeeded in averting a coup attempt against Déby.

 

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