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Ghana History

Ghana - national flagGhana - national flag

Ghana - National Flag, The flag was first officially launched in 1957 and contains the Pan-African colors, red, yellow and green. The black star symbolizes Africa's freedom. The model of the flag is the flag of Ethiopia and the colors are the colors of the leading Ghanaian political party.

  • Countryaah: What does the flag of Ghana look like? Follow this link, then you will see the image in PNG format and flag meaning description about this country.

Ghana - History

Ghana - History, The area's history can be traced back to the 1300's, when groups of mossi migrated to the savannah area of ​​present-day northern Ghana, which created the kingdoms of Mamprusi, Dagomba and Namumba. Almost simultaneously, the Bono Kingdom was formed immediately north of the forest region in western Ghana. At construction approximately In 1450 of the trading town of Bighu, Bono was joined by the West African trade routes, which mined the gold produced along the Black Volta and in the forest region to the south. In the mid-1500-t. the Gonestat State was established at the southern part of the Black Volta by groups immigrating from the west. In the mid-1600's, they extended their influence to the east.

In southern Ghana, the easternmost part was in the late 1400's. inhabited by ga-adangme who had immigrated from the east, while the merger of immigrants from north and community groups formed a number of smaller Akan states; in the forest region to the west. Their gold production caused the Portuguese, upon their arrival in 1471, to call the area Gold Coast. The Portuguese established several forts, among others. São Jorge da Mina, and they managed to maintain a monopoly on gold exports until the early 1600's when they were expelled by the Dutch.

Ghana History

  • TOPSCHOOLSINTHEUSA: Provides exam dates and a list of test centers for both GRE General Test and Subject Tests in Ghana. Also includes GRE scoring information and test preparation tips throughout the country.
Presidents
1960-66 Kwame Nkrumah
1966-69 Joseph Arthur Ankrah
1969-70 Akwasi Amankwa Afrifa
1970-72 Edward Akufo-Addo
1972-78 Ignatius Kutu Acheampong
1978-79 Frederick WK Akuffo
1979 Jerry Rawlings
1979-81 Hilla Limann
1982-2001 Jerry Rawlings
2001-2009 John Kufuor
2009-2012 John Atta Mills
2012- John Dramani Mahama

Until the early 1700-t. gold was the main export product, which Europeans annually decreased between 1/3 and 1 t; then exports of slaves became the most important, and until the British slave trade ban in 1807, some European ships were carried out. 650,000 slaves from the Gold Coast.

In 1807, the Ashanti kingdom gained control of the coast by defeating Fanti, but after a defeat to an alliance of the coastal states, the British and the Danes, in 1830 Ashanti had to give up the supremacy over the coastal region (regarding the Danish colonial period, see the Gold Coast). The British then established an informal patronage and in 1850 and 1872 bought the Danish and Dutch forts. In 1874, the British established the Gold Coast Colony following a peace treaty with the Ashanti kingdom. In 1902 Ashanti and the Northern Territories were annexed, and in 1919 the colony was given responsibility for the administration of the western part of the former German Togolandas a mandate area under the League of Nations. The British colony administration built a so-called indirect rule based on chiefs. In response, the 1920 educated elite formed the National Congress of British West Africa, demanding modernization of society and political influence.

Up until the crisis in the 1930's, there was a recovery in the economy of the colony mainly due to a sharp rise in cocoa exports. During World War II and in the years immediately thereafter, the economy was geared towards supporting the British war effort and post-war reconstruction, while the colonial administration sought to implement a slow and controlled decolonization. But from 1949, it was faced with demands for "self-government now" from the newly formed Convention People's Party (CCP), led by Kwame Nkrumah. After an election victory in 1951, Nkrumah was appointed leader of a government that had left parliament. Despite some opposition, the CPP triumphed in a number of subsequent elections, and after a positive referendum in the area of ​​mandate, the colony on 6.3.1957 became independent under the name Ghana. Nkrumah, who became increasingly the exponent of continued decolonization in Africa, African socialism and the building of a neutralist bloc, in 1960 transformed the country into a republic with himself as president, and in 1964 it became a socialist unity party state. The downturn in the economy, corruption, exception legislation and growing isolation vis--vis the Western powers led in February 1966 to a coup in which the army and police ousted Nkrumah and opened a court settlement. A National Liberation Council was established, whose central force was General AA Afrifa, who in 1969 was responsible for the establishment of the Second Republic, led by Prime Minister KA Busia.

Due. dissatisfaction with the civilian politicians in January 1972, the armed forces again took power and created a National Redemption Council headed by General IK Acheampong, who sought to govern the country through newly created district councils. After several coup attempts, Acheampong proposed establishing a threefold power between the armed forces, the police and civilians, but without political parties. However, strong opposition from the civilian elite resulted in General F. Akuffo (1937-79) taking power in July 1978, after which political parties were allowed to take part in the planned elections. During the June 1979 election campaign, a group of younger officers seized power and formed the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council with Lieutenant J. Rawlingsas leader. As part of the fight against corruption, a number of senior officers were executed, including Afrifa, Acheampong and Akuffo, but the election was held and the leader of the largest party, H. Limann, was then elected President of the Third Republic and inaugurated in September 1979.

Internal strife in the government, strikes and unrest due to rising food prices and economic policy led J. Rawlings to take power again on 31 December 1981 and formed the Provisional National Defense Council. He repealed the constitution, parliament and political parties and replaced the district councils with the People's Defense Committees (later Committees for the Defense of the Revolution) as the popular basis for the revolution. Dissatisfaction with the work of these committees and with an economic recovery program agreed with the World Bank and the IMFfrom 1983 sparked strong protests from workers and students. This led to a tightening of internal security policy, and in 1988-89 Rawlings attempted to obtain a popular mandate through elections to district assemblies. Foreign donor pressure in 1990 forced the government to organize regional debates on the democratization of the country, while the opposition in dissatisfaction with both the procedures and the constitutional proposals created the Movement for Freedom and Justicethat required a multi-party system reintroduced. However, the government's proposed constitution gained a majority of 92% of the votes cast (44%) in a referendum in April 1992, and in the summer of 1992, a limited number of political parties were allowed to take part in the upcoming presidential and parliamentary elections. At the November 1992 presidential election, Rawlings defeated opposition candidates by gaining over 50% of the votes cast. Although Commonwealth observers approved the election, the opposition claimed that there had been irregularities and as a result they boycotted the December parliamentary elections.

The inauguration of Rawlings as President of the Fourth Republic on 7.1.1993 was followed by economic strikes that were fiercely attacked by the opposition, but in May of that year, foreign donors endorsed both democratization and economic policy by making binding commitments for financial support for Ghana.

Ghana was affected by ethnic unrest in the northern part of the country from 1994-95. approximately 1,000 were killed and about 150,000 made homeless. At the December 1996 presidential election, Jerry Rawlings won a convincing victory. At the 2000 presidential election, when Rawlings couldn't stand, John Kufuor of the New Patriotic Party, NPP, won; the party also won most seats in parliament. Kufuor was in office in January 2001.

Kufuor was re-elected in 2004; under his leadership, the country has seen some economic progress, not least due to favorable world market prices of cocoa. Due. Home turmoil fled thousands of Togolese in Ghana in 2005.

At the 2008 presidential election, Kufuor was replaced by John Atta Mills (1944-2012), who came from the National Democratic Congress, NDC. Upon Mills's sudden death in 2012, his vice president, John Dramani Mahama (b. 1958), assumed the post of president. Mahama won the presidential election later that year. The economic and political stability of Ghana in 2000-t. made the country a regional superpower.

 

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