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Kyrgyzstan History

Kyrgyzstan - state flagKyrgyzstan - state flag

The flag was adopted in 1992. The yellow disc in the middle, the Sun, stands for light and eternity. The forty rays symbolize the forty tribes that were united to the Kyrgyz nation. In the bird's eye view, a bird's eye view is taken from a herb, a traditional Kyrgyz shepherd's tent.

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Kyrgyzstan (History)

The origins of the Kyrgyz are disputed. The same goes for the origin of the name kırgız ('Kyrgyz' in Kyrgyz). Probably it means original 'wilderness nomad' (from Turkish. Kır 'wilderness' and gez' roam '), but is linked in folklore to the Turkish church '40', presumably with 40 original tribes in a confederation that is still an important part of the Kyrgyz self-perception.

The Kyrgyz tribesmen originally came from the area around the Tian Shan Mountains in Central Asia; their ancestors were Turkish and Mongolian nomadic tribes and Tian Shan's indigenous people. Not until the late 1700's. one can speak of a common ethnic consciousness attached to the nomadic economy and the Kyrgyz territory around Tian Shan. An actual Kyrgyz state formation did not emerge until the Soviet era.

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In the late 1700's. the Khanate Khanate was formed in the Fergana Valley, where Islam was already established, around the holy city of Osj. In the early 1800's. Kokand expanded to the north and conquered the rest of present-day Kyrgyzstan, and only now were these parts Islamized.

In 1876, Kokand was conquered by Russia, and a stream of Russian officials and peasants followed in the wake of the conquest. Part of the Siberian Cossacks were moved to the strategically important area between Lake Balkhash and Ala Tau -bjergkæden where they served as the border straps. The Russian conquest created the germ of the Kyrgyz national feeling; relations with the Russians deteriorated sharply as Russian settlers in the late 1800-t. began cultivating the traditional grazing lands of the nomads. Opposition to the Russians culminated in an uprising in 1916; it was brutally crushed, and many Kyrgyz fled to China.

Kyrgyzstan History

The October Revolution of 1917 was therefore in many ways perceived as a liberation: within the framework set by the Soviet power, the foundations were laid for the development of a Kyrgyz state and nation, and in 1924 the Kara-Kyrgyz Autonomous Region was established. The area changed name and status several times before becoming the Kyrgyz Republic in 1936. With the October Revolution also came reform efforts. Thus, in 1921-22, a reform was carried out in the northern regions that gave land to the peasants and democratized the decision-making process regarding. irrigation. Similar reforms were tried in 1927-28 in the south, but here it was in fierce struggle against the basmati movement, who represented the former religious and land-owning upper class. During the same period, the first national cadres were trained, and a decree of 1932 provided that the entire Kyrgyz administration in 1934 would be staffed by Kyrgyz. However, a wave of purges initiated in 1933 interrupted this development and wiped out virtually the entire Kyrgyz elite for the rest of the decade. The cleansing can seen as a showdown between nomadic culture and Moscow's desire to make the indigenous people settled.

Although Kyrgyz autonomy was officially preserved, Stalinism entailed a growing Russian dominance. The economic modernization after World War II took place in the cities, especially in the northern part, and was carried out by Slavic immigrants. It largely did not affect the Kyrgyz, who were referred to take care of agriculture, primarily sheep farming. In addition, they had gradually become a minority in their own republic, and when young Kyrgyz moved to the cities, they were often considered foreigners and had difficulty finding housing, etc. It became the germ of the first independent organizations, and in the late 1980's a real national movement arose; it began in the industrial cities of the north, but spread rapidly to the south, where in June 1990 there were violent clashes with the Uzbek minority.Askar Akayev of Parliament for the newly created presidency. He became a symbol of the new Kyrgyzstan, which said goodbye to the hitherto communist leadership. Parliament adopted a declaration of sovereignty, and in December 1990, the country changed its name to the Republic of Kyrgyzstan. On August 31, 1991, the republic declared independence from the Soviet Union, and in October 1991, Akayev was elected president by the people by direct election without any counter-candidates. Following the dissolution of the Union the same year, Kyrgyzstan became a member of the CIS.

Akayev immediately launched economic reform, allowed significant political liberalization, and encouraged the creation of a civil society with a free press, and his democratic stance attracted the attention of the outside world. But he soon encountered opposition in parliament, and he and his vice president, Feliks Kulov (b. 1948), were repeatedly accused of corruption. Nevertheless, he won the presidential election in 1995. However, he became increasingly authoritarian and less democratic; in the run-up to the 2000 parliamentary and presidential elections, he banned several opposition groups and imprisoned Kulov, his main rival for the presidency, after which he was re-elected for another five years. Both elections were heavily criticized by the OSCE. In 2002, security forces were deployed against a demonstration held by the opposition and five protesters were killed. In 2003, the opposition suffered another defeat: a prominent independent newspaper that had published articles on corruption among Kyrgyz officials was shut down, and Akayev, his family and several senior officials were granted lifelong immunity from prosecution. At the same time, poverty and unemployment spread, especially in the southern regions of the country, and in 2005 60% of the population lived below the poverty line defined by the UN. In February-March 2005, the blatant irregularities in the parliamentary elections led to violent popular protests, the so-called "Tulip Revolution". Akayev had to flee to Russia and withdraw. Parliament appointed the former Prime MinisterKurmanbek Bakiyevto the Prime Minister and Acting President, and in July 2005 he was elected President for five years with almost 89% of the vote. Before the election, he had promised his biggest rival, the shortly before released Feliks Kulov, the prime minister post, and so it was. Bakiyev quickly ran into difficulties with parliament and was faced with popular demands to fight corruption and crime. Along with growing economic problems in the wake of the international financial crisis, it caused tensions in the country to rise. In April 2010, there were widespread riots in which protesters opened fire. Many perished on both sides in the bloody street fights. After a few days of unrest, the opposition took power in the country and President Bakiyev left the capital, but initially refused to resign. After a few days he left the country. In June 2010, violent riots broke out between Kyrgyz and Uzbeks in the south of the country, especially around Jalalabad and Osj. Several hundred were and approximately 100,000 Uzbeks fled to Uzbekistan.

Externally, Kyrgyzstan is particularly dependent on Russia, whose interest in the country has grown since President Akayev in the autumn of 2001 made the Manas air base available to the US-led anti-terror coalition. Thus, in 2003, Russian forces moved into the Kant air base, and Kyrgyzstan became Russia's strategic ally. The US military presence is also of economic importance, as it is estimated to contribute 7% to GDP. Kyrgyzstan must pay special attention to Uzbekistan, which in 2005 put strong pressure on the country to send refugees back from the unrest in the Uzbek city of Andijan in the Fergana Valley. Furthermore, Uzbekistan has tightened border conditions; after the ethnic unrest in 2010, relations were further strained. On the other hand, relations with China are good; countries have concluded a border agreement.

 

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