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Luxembourg History

Luxembourg - national flagLuxembourg - national flag

Luxembourg flag has been used since 1815, but only officially recognized in 1845. The flag is similar to the Dutch, except that the dimensions are different and the blue color lighter, but the Luxembourg flag has a different historical background, as it is based on the Counts of Nassau's weapons from the late 1200's. with a red lion on white and blue stripes.

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Luxembourg - mass media

Luxembourg's four-five daily newspapers have a total circulation of about 135,000 (2005), and most are affiliated with political parties. The country's oldest, largest and most influential daily newspaper Wort, formerly Luxemburger Wort (Grdl. 1848, circulation approximately 85,000 (2005)), is closely connected with the Catholic Church and the Christian Party, CSV. The second largest daily newspaper is the socialist Tageblatt/Zeitung fir Lëtzebuerg. Most newspapers are German-language, but also contain articles in French and Latvian.

Luxembourg has never had public radio and television channels. The national RTL Radio Lëtzebuerg and RTL Télé Lëtzebuerg are owned by Europe's largest radio and television company, RTL (formerly Compagnie Luxembourgoise de Télédiffusion, CLT). Ever since its founding in 1931, CLT/RTL has aimed at an audience outside Luxembourg and had great success with e.g. the English-language Radio Luxembourg (1932-92). In the field of radio, RTL's monopoly was officially broken in the early 1990's with the establishment of private radio stations, and ten years later the television monopoly was broken. RTL continues to contribute to television and radio coverage across large parts of Europe. The TV satellites Astra are also based in Luxembourg.

Luxembourg - history

In 963 Count Siegfried (d. 998) acquired the castle Lucilinburhuc on the river Alzette. From here he and his successors spread the territory of the county of Luxembourg. In 1136, the county inherited a son from the Count of Namur, thereby expanding Luxembourg to larger French-speaking areas.

Luxembourg History

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In 1308, Henry VII of Luxembourg was elected King of Germany, while his son Johan the Blind (1296-1346) married Bohemia. Johan's son, Charles IV, who became German emperor, elevated Luxembourg to a duchy. In 1388, Emperor Wenzel pledged Luxembourg in order to pursue his Central European policy. In 1441, Philip III the Good of Burgundy took over the lien, after which Luxembourg became part of the Burgundian lands and later of the Habsburg Netherlands.

During the revolt against Spain in the late 1500-t. Luxembourg, which had not been affected by the Reformation, remained on the Spanish side. In 1659, the southern parts of Thionville and Montmédy were ceded to France. In 1684 Luxembourg was conquered by Louis XIV, who again relinquished it in 1697.

In 1794, the Southern Netherlands and thus Luxembourg were conquered by revolutionary France, which made the duchy the department of Forêts. After Napoleon 1st defeat in 1815, it was the Congress of Vienna decided to join the Netherlands and Belgium together under the Dutch king William the first Luxembourg got a special scheme: While the eastern territories were ceded to Prussia, the residue was elevated to a grand duchy and granted the Dutch king as personal property. The purpose was partly to compensate the king for the relinquishment of some family territories, partly and in particular to have Luxembourg admitted as a member of the German Confederationin order to place a Prussian garrison in Luxembourg's fortress as a defense against France. The Grand Duchy was effectively ruled by the Netherlands and Belgium and, like the other Belgian provinces, participated in the Belgian Revolution of 1830.

As part of the final peace treaty between the Netherlands and Belgium in 1839, Luxembourg was divided. The western, French-speaking part became the Belgian province of Luxembourg, while the eastern, German-speaking part was to remain a Grand Duchy in personnel union with the Netherlands. For the sake of economy, Luxembourg was admitted to the German Customs Union in 1842. The abolition of the German Confederation in 1866 made Luxembourg an international issue. In 1867, the great powers recognized the neutrality and independence of the Grand Duchy. The Prussian garrison in Luxembourg City was withdrawn and the fortress demolished.

In 1868 a liberal constitution was introduced. The area gained a share of the boom in the German economy, especially thanks to the significant steel industry, which was largely in German hands. In response to German domination, French was retained as the language of administration and culture, even though the vernacular was a German dialect and German was widely used.

After William III's death in 1890, the Luxembourgers used male succession to abolish the personnel union with the Netherlands, and Adolf, Duke of Nassau, was installed as Grand Duke.

In 1914, the neutrality of the Grand Duchy was violated, and the country was occupied by Germany. In 1919, Grand Duchess Marie-Adélaïde (1894-1924) abdicated, who had been installed in 1912 after the abolition of the male succession. She was considered by many to be pro-German, and her sister Charlotte, whose position was confirmed by a referendum, became head of state. In the same year, universal suffrage was introduced, and the Christian party has, except for 1974-79, been in government ever since, in coalition with either socialists or liberals.

In May 1940, Luxembourg's neutrality was again violated by Germany, and the Grand Duchess and government left the country. Luxembourg suffered greatly during the occupation and during the Ardennes Offensive in 1944. In the same year Luxembourg became a member of the Benelux, in 1949 of NATO, in 1951 of the European Coal and Steel Community, in which the country's relatively large steel industry ensured the small state independent representation, and in 1957 of European Economic Community. The Maastricht Treaty was acceded to in 1992 and the euro was introduced in 1999.

Luxembourg has had bourgeois leadership of governments for more than 50 years. The Christian Social Party CSV and the Socialist Party LSAP formed the government after the 2004 election. In 2009, the two governing parties agreed to extend cooperation for another five years until the next election in 2013. Jean-Claude Juncker became prime minister in 1995, he was re-elected in 2013, but had to resign the same year due to a scandal in the country's intelligence. The new Prime Minister was Xavier Bettel (b. 3.3.1973) from the Democratic Party.

In 2000, Grand Duke Jean I abdicated in favor of his eldest son, Henri.

In 2008, a constitutional crisis arose when Grand Duke Henri, who is a devout Catholic, opposed the bill to introduce active euthanasia. Henri had so far acted politically neutral, but now refused to sign the law as it went against his political convictions. The consequence was a constitutional amendment that restricts the Grand Duke's power so that they cannot interfere in the content of the country's laws.

 

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