Mongolia (National Flag)
The flag was officially adopted in 1992, when the communist star at the top
of the emblem was removed. The flag originates in its current form from 1940.
The red color stands for progress and prosperity, and the blue is the national
color of the Mongols. With the yellow color, which represents eternal
friendship, a Buddhist emblem, soyonbo, is depicted with figures
representing elements from the worldview of Buddhism.
What does the flag of Mongolia look like? Follow this link, then you will
see the image in PNG format and flag meaning description about this country.
Mongolia - history
Genghis Khan united the Mongol tribes for the first time in a common
army. After taking control of northern China in 1215,
the Mongols subjugated almost all of Asia and parts of Eastern Europe. In
1271, Khubilai Khan established the Mongol Yuan Dynasty in China, which ruled
From 1368 to 1644, the Chinese Ming Dynasty succeeded in keeping the Mongols
out of China. In 1644, the Ming Dynasty lost power over China to
the Manchus. The Manchus, who founded the Qing Dynasty in China, allied
themselves with one of the strong Mongol tribes, the Chakhar Mongols, who were
part of the regime's elite troops. Thus, it succeeded in incorporating most of
present-day Mongolia as part of China.
Around 1685, the Chakharmongols made an unsuccessful attempt to gain power in
the northern areas; their leading families were killed, and the others dispersed
or assimilated by the Chinese. In 1691, therefore, Outer Mongolia, present-day
Mongolia, had to submit to the Manchus, and until 1911, Mongolia was ruled from
TOPSCHOOLSINTHEUSA: Provides exam dates and a list of test centers for
both GRE General Test and Subject Tests in Mongolia. Also includes GRE
scoring information and test preparation tips throughout the country.
In the 1600's. the Tibetan form of Buddhism spread in earnest in Mongolia,
thus becoming culturally connected with Tibet. Shamanism and Buddhism had
coexisted since the time of Genghis Khan, and Khubilai Khan supported the spread
of Buddhism during the Yuan Dynasty. The Qing emperors also supported the spread
of the religion, which they believed could pacify the Mongols; thus, a male
member of each family was to be a monk. This greatly reduced the army and
strained the economy, and the monasteries remained from the 1700's. very powerful
In the early 1900-t. the Qing dynasty collapsed and a Chinese republic was
established. Mongolia took advantage of the power vacuum and in 1911, with the
support of Russia, declared the country independent, and the highest Mongol
llama was proclaimed king. However, the newly declared independence was partly
reduced to autonomy under Chinese sovereignty in agreements between China and
Russia in 1913, and partly by a treaty of 1915. In 1919, China restored control
of Mongolia and abolished its autonomous status by deploying troops in the
country. It was the starting point for the formation of nationalist resistance
groups, which in alliance with military groups from the Soviet Union defeated
the Chinese army. After a brief alliance with Baron Ungern-Sternberg's
(1886-1921) "white armies", who plundered and ravaged during their advance, an
alliance was initiated with the".
In the spring of 1921, Sukhe Baatar formed the first political party in
Mongolia, the Revolutionary Party of the Mongolian People. In July 1921, a brief
period of Mongol autonomy began, with Sukhe Baatar establishing a provisional
government that lasted until 1924. The Soviet Union intervened and formed the
Mongol People's Republic, which in effect became a Soviet satellite state,
formally under Chinese supremacy until 1945.
Until 1928, moderate attempts at market regulation were made, and local
governments had relatively high self-determination. The Soviet Union allowed the
initiated socialization to be abandoned and cattle and other farm animals to
become private property again. From 1932, the Soviet Union began a forced
industrial development in Mongolia, and the country was militarily and
infrastructurally equipped. Communist principles again became dominant during
the Stalinist dictatorship of Khorloghiyin Choybalsan (1895-1952). During the
brutal purges, more than 30,000 of a total population of 700,000 perished.
In 1952, Choybalsan died, and Yumjaagiyn Tsedenbal (1916-91) took over the
presidency. The centralist planning regime was continued, albeit considerably
less dictatorial than in the 1930's.
A strong, state-controlled industrialization was initiated in the early
1960's. Agriculture was developed through large-scale farming and the cultivation
of new lands, and the health and education systems were improved with the
support of the Soviet Union. In the next decades until approximately In 1990, this
development was consolidated under the Communist Party's monopoly of power, and
industry became the dominant sector in Mongolia. Soviet and Eastern European
specialists formed a significant part of the skilled workforce on which Mongolia
had gradually become dependent. All imports of machinery, oil, etc. also took
place from the Soviet Union.
On July 29, 1990, Mongolia held its first free elections. A multi-party
system was introduced and the leading role of the Communist Party was ironed out
in the constitution. Significant privatization has taken place since 1991, and a
very liberal-inspired economy has emerged. Mongolia thus broke during the 1990's
with 70 years of planned economy, one-party rule and dependence on either China
or the Soviet Union. In the 1996 parliamentary elections, the new parties in the
democratic opposition won over the former ruling party of the communist era, the
MPRP. However, the MPRP, which has done away with its past and professes
democracy and market economy, returned to power in 2000 with a colossal election
victory, which can be partly attributed to Mongolia's miserable economy after
the cold winter of 1999-2000. In the 2004 parliamentary elections, the
opposition did well, and the MPRP had to form a coalition government with the
Democratic Party. In January 2006, there was a political crisis that led to the
MPRP withdrawing from the government. The MPRP was able to take over government
power itself with the support of smaller parties. In the summer of 2008, there
were violent protests in Ulan Bator after a controversial election. In 2010, the
ruling MPRP changed its name to the Mongolian People's Party, MPP, the same name
as during the Soviet era.
Mongolia has very high growth rates and large coal and mineral
reserves. However, foreign investment has been hampered by violent corruption.
Mongolian music is pentatonic, and lyrics follow poetic rules. Two types
dominate: "long songs" with melodies and free rhythm and "short songs" with
fixed rhythm and strophic structure. A number of vocal genres are characterized
individually by distinctive voice registers; for example, the overtone song
chöömij has both a deep drone and a whistle-like melody.
Instruments used to accompany singing include mouth harps, string
instruments, with trapezoidal body, lye and citrate. These instruments,
which were previously part of the court ensembles, now together with shepherd's
flutes make up the folk music groups' instrumentarium.
Defense The Mongols The Secret History from around 1240 and European
travelogues from 1300 t. describes for the first time Mongolian court music and
shamanic songs. Until the beginning of the 1900-t. the epic songs and
instrumental music were of great importance to the courts of the local princes,
just as a religious music practice was widespread in the Mongolian
population. In Soviet times, art song, opera and ballet developed, and from
composers such as Magsarzavyn Dugarzav (1893-1946) and Belgijn Damdinsüren
(1919-92) the first works, which incorporate traditional elements, originate.
Henning Haslund-Christensen's collected material 1928-39 is one of the first
sound recordings of Mongolian music. The distinctive Mongolian overtone song is
in the late 1900's. has become the subject of great popularity in the West, where
several artists have used it in their music; Among other things, Irene Becker
(b. 1951) from the New Jungle Orchestra has used it in her compositions.