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Mongolia History

Mongolia (National Flag)Mongolia (National Flag)

The flag was officially adopted in 1992, when the communist star at the top of the emblem was removed. The flag originates in its current form from 1940. The red color stands for progress and prosperity, and the blue is the national color of the Mongols. With the yellow color, which represents eternal friendship, a Buddhist emblem, soyonbo, is depicted with figures representing elements from the worldview of Buddhism.

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Mongolia - history

Genghis Khan united the Mongol tribes for the first time in a common army. After taking control of northern China in 1215, the Mongols subjugated almost all of Asia and parts of Eastern Europe. In 1271, Khubilai Khan established the Mongol Yuan Dynasty in China, which ruled until 1368.

From 1368 to 1644, the Chinese Ming Dynasty succeeded in keeping the Mongols out of China. In 1644, the Ming Dynasty lost power over China to the Manchus. The Manchus, who founded the Qing Dynasty in China, allied themselves with one of the strong Mongol tribes, the Chakhar Mongols, who were part of the regime's elite troops. Thus, it succeeded in incorporating most of present-day Mongolia as part of China.

Around 1685, the Chakharmongols made an unsuccessful attempt to gain power in the northern areas; their leading families were killed, and the others dispersed or assimilated by the Chinese. In 1691, therefore, Outer Mongolia, present-day Mongolia, had to submit to the Manchus, and until 1911, Mongolia was ruled from China.

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In the 1600's. the Tibetan form of Buddhism spread in earnest in Mongolia, thus becoming culturally connected with Tibet. Shamanism and Buddhism had coexisted since the time of Genghis Khan, and Khubilai Khan supported the spread of Buddhism during the Yuan Dynasty. The Qing emperors also supported the spread of the religion, which they believed could pacify the Mongols; thus, a male member of each family was to be a monk. This greatly reduced the army and strained the economy, and the monasteries remained from the 1700's. very powerful institutions.

In the early 1900-t. the Qing dynasty collapsed and a Chinese republic was established. Mongolia took advantage of the power vacuum and in 1911, with the support of Russia, declared the country independent, and the highest Mongol llama was proclaimed king. However, the newly declared independence was partly reduced to autonomy under Chinese sovereignty in agreements between China and Russia in 1913, and partly by a treaty of 1915. In 1919, China restored control of Mongolia and abolished its autonomous status by deploying troops in the country. It was the starting point for the formation of nationalist resistance groups, which in alliance with military groups from the Soviet Union defeated the Chinese army. After a brief alliance with Baron Ungern-Sternberg's (1886-1921) "white armies", who plundered and ravaged during their advance, an alliance was initiated with the".

Mongolia History

In the spring of 1921, Sukhe Baatar formed the first political party in Mongolia, the Revolutionary Party of the Mongolian People. In July 1921, a brief period of Mongol autonomy began, with Sukhe Baatar establishing a provisional government that lasted until 1924. The Soviet Union intervened and formed the Mongol People's Republic, which in effect became a Soviet satellite state, formally under Chinese supremacy until 1945.

Until 1928, moderate attempts at market regulation were made, and local governments had relatively high self-determination. The Soviet Union allowed the initiated socialization to be abandoned and cattle and other farm animals to become private property again. From 1932, the Soviet Union began a forced industrial development in Mongolia, and the country was militarily and infrastructurally equipped. Communist principles again became dominant during the Stalinist dictatorship of Khorloghiyin Choybalsan (1895-1952). During the brutal purges, more than 30,000 of a total population of 700,000 perished.

In 1952, Choybalsan died, and Yumjaagiyn Tsedenbal (1916-91) took over the presidency. The centralist planning regime was continued, albeit considerably less dictatorial than in the 1930's.

A strong, state-controlled industrialization was initiated in the early 1960's. Agriculture was developed through large-scale farming and the cultivation of new lands, and the health and education systems were improved with the support of the Soviet Union. In the next decades until approximately In 1990, this development was consolidated under the Communist Party's monopoly of power, and industry became the dominant sector in Mongolia. Soviet and Eastern European specialists formed a significant part of the skilled workforce on which Mongolia had gradually become dependent. All imports of machinery, oil, etc. also took place from the Soviet Union.

On July 29, 1990, Mongolia held its first free elections. A multi-party system was introduced and the leading role of the Communist Party was ironed out in the constitution. Significant privatization has taken place since 1991, and a very liberal-inspired economy has emerged. Mongolia thus broke during the 1990's with 70 years of planned economy, one-party rule and dependence on either China or the Soviet Union. In the 1996 parliamentary elections, the new parties in the democratic opposition won over the former ruling party of the communist era, the MPRP. However, the MPRP, which has done away with its past and professes democracy and market economy, returned to power in 2000 with a colossal election victory, which can be partly attributed to Mongolia's miserable economy after the cold winter of 1999-2000. In the 2004 parliamentary elections, the opposition did well, and the MPRP had to form a coalition government with the Democratic Party. In January 2006, there was a political crisis that led to the MPRP withdrawing from the government. The MPRP was able to take over government power itself with the support of smaller parties. In the summer of 2008, there were violent protests in Ulan Bator after a controversial election. In 2010, the ruling MPRP changed its name to the Mongolian People's Party, MPP, the same name as during the Soviet era.

Mongolia has very high growth rates and large coal and mineral reserves. However, foreign investment has been hampered by violent corruption.

 

Mongolia (Music)

Mongolian music is pentatonic, and lyrics follow poetic rules. Two types dominate: "long songs" with melodies and free rhythm and "short songs" with fixed rhythm and strophic structure. A number of vocal genres are characterized individually by distinctive voice registers; for example, the overtone song chöömij has both a deep drone and a whistle-like melody.

Instruments used to accompany singing include mouth harps, string instruments, with trapezoidal body, lye and citrate. These instruments, which were previously part of the court ensembles, now together with shepherd's flutes make up the folk music groups' instrumentarium.

Defense The Mongols The Secret History from around 1240 and European travelogues from 1300 t. describes for the first time Mongolian court music and shamanic songs. Until the beginning of the 1900-t. the epic songs and instrumental music were of great importance to the courts of the local princes, just as a religious music practice was widespread in the Mongolian population. In Soviet times, art song, opera and ballet developed, and from composers such as Magsarzavyn Dugarzav (1893-1946) and Belgijn Damdinsüren (1919-92) the first works, which incorporate traditional elements, originate.

Henning Haslund-Christensen's collected material 1928-39 is one of the first sound recordings of Mongolian music. The distinctive Mongolian overtone song is in the late 1900's. has become the subject of great popularity in the West, where several artists have used it in their music; Among other things, Irene Becker (b. 1951) from the New Jungle Orchestra has used it in her compositions.

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