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Mozambique History

Mozambique - national flagMozambique - national flag

Mozambique - National Flag, The Flag was introduced in 1983 and, apart from the state arms in the red triangle, it is similar to the Liberation Movement Frelimo's flag. In the weapon, the rifle, the book and the chop symbolize defense, education and agriculture. The star stands for socialism, the green for agriculture, the black for Africa, the yellow for mineral wealth, the red for the revolutionary struggle, and the white for justice and peace.

  • Countryaah: What does the flag of Mozambique look like? Follow this link, then you will see the image in PNG format and flag meaning description about this country.

Mozambique - history

Mozambique - history, Mozambique was originally populated by the Khoikoi - and San people, displaced around 1000 AD of the Bantu people and their Iron Age and agricultural culture. Even before 1000, African peoples along the coast exchanged goods with Arab merchants, and finds of Chinese porcelain and Arabic coins in the region's African kingdoms (c. 1200-1600) attest to an extensive trading network. In 1498 Vasco da Gama arrived in the area, and two years after the Portuguese began the conquest of Arabian trading stations on the coast. In 1629 colonization of the hinterland began under the prazo system, where migrated Portuguese against a charge got land court for three generations. The income of the new builders came, among other things. from sale of ivory and gold, taxes of the natives, and slave trade. Up to the 1850's, 20,000-30,000 slaves were exported annually from Quelimane. In 1891 large parts of the country were leased to three private companies, while the southern part was to earn the rapidly growing South African gold mines, partly through the port of Maputo and partly by supplying labor.

Mozambique History

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Following the military takeover in Portugal in 1926, the new dictator, Salazar, decreed that the Portuguese colonies should produce raw materials in exchange for the motherland's industrial products and provide a practical solution to the Portuguese overpopulation problem. For Mozambique, this meant further intensifying Portuguese exploitation of the country. 500,000 black residents worked in neighboring countries and many more were migrant or forced laborers. The immigration of privileged but poor Portuguese led to the emergence of European-looking cities and local industrial production of simple consumer goods. From 1962 the repression and widespread forced labor led to the Frelimo rebel movement(Frente de Libertação de Mozambique) wind in the sails. It launched an armed liberation struggle and gained control of large areas in the north. When the colonial government collapsed in 1974, a transitional government was set up under Frelimo's leadership. The settlers attempted a coup that year, which led to bloody clashes between whites and blacks, and by independence June 25, 1975, half the white population had fled. Before the escape, most people sabotaged their industrial and plantation plants, leaving a country in chaos. Following the Soviet model, Frelimo was transformed from 1977 into a communist party, whose leader was automatically appointed president, and an economic course began with an emphasis on planning economics., agricultural collectives and state industry. At the same time, great progress was made in the expansion of the health and education system. Frelimo allowed Rhodesia and South Africa's black rebel movements to operate from the country, after which the militarily superior white regimes initiated retaliatory action; bridges, port and railway facilities were destroyed and with their creation of the Fifth Column organization Renamo Mozambique was plunged into a devastating civil war. Along the way, Renamo won support among the peasants. By the end of the civil war in 1992, the majority of schools, health clinics and shops were destroyed, as were vast agricultural areas deserted and large parts of the industrial plants useless. 1.7 million residents had fled to neighboring countries, and 3.7 million. to other regions of the country.

At the first Democratic elections in 1994, Frelimo won under the leadership of Joaquim Chissano, and Frelimo gained a majority in parliament. Mozambique has since followed a liberal economic policy that has led to strong economic growth and rising social inequality. At the 1999 multi-party elections, Frelimo regained power, although the victory over the opposition party Renamo was narrow, prompting political unrest with several people killed. Chissano retired in 2004 and left the leadership position in Frelimo to Armando Guebuza, who, after Frelimo's election victory in the 2004 elections, took office as president in February 2005. He regained the presidential post in the 2009 election, gaining over 75% of the vote. Guebuza could follow. the constitution did not run for the 2014 elections. However, this election was also won by Frelimo's candidate,Filipe Nyusi, who became President of 2015.

Mozambique - mass media

Mozambique - mass media, Until 1992 all media were owned or closely controlled by the government, but since then several independent newspapers have been published, and from 1993 also an independent private television station. Freedom of the press is now generally in good shape, although the opposition criticizes the difficulty in getting through the public media and even though the anti-libel law is used to limit freedom of the press.

In 2000, a recognized and independent journalist Carlos Cardoso was assassinated in Mozambique. He was well-known and respected as a serious government critic, who had demanded, among other things, charges in a comprehensive fraud case involving public funds. In 2003, a group of men, including the assassin who carried out the murder, were sentenced to long-term prison sentences. Indicier pointed to the involvement of the presidential family, but the case ended there.

Printed media have very little spread outside the big cities, partly because illiteracy is high. There are a number of local TV and radio stations, several supported by UNESCO.

Denmark has supported the establishment of a regional journalism continuing education center, The Nordic/SADCC Journalism Center in Maputo. It offers journalism continuing education courses in all the countries affiliated with the regional cooperation organization SADCC.

Mozambique - literature

Mozambique Literature Compared to Africa's other large Portuguese colony, Angola, independent Mozambican literature emerged relatively late. The earliest literary expressions are the short story O Livro da Dor (1925, The Book of Pain) by João Albasani (1876-1922) and poems by Rui de Noronha (1905-43) in the newspaper O Brado Africano (The African Rape) founded by Albasani. However, it was not until after World War II that a clear outline of actual Mozambican literature began to emerge; especially from the 1960's, where to date the greatest name in Mozambican literature, José Craveirinha, published the poem collection Chimbo (or Ximbo) (1964). That same year, Luís Bernardo Honwana's now classic novels were publishedNós matámos o cão-tinhoso (We have killed the evil self). With independence in 1975, the politically engaged literature gradually grew in favor of other and less predictable trends. A new era was marked by the innovative short stories in Voze's anoitecidas (1986, Blurred Voices) by Mia Couto, whose novel Terra Sonâmbula (1992, then Sleepwalkers, 2000) consolidated his position as one of the Portuguese-speaking world's leading writers.

While most Mozambican writers write in Portuguese, Bento Sitoe (b. 1947) uses the African language tsonga, for example in the short novel Zabela (1984), which addresses the issue of prostitution and AIDS.

 

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