Niger - National Flag
Niger - National Flag, The flag was officially adopted in 1959. The orange
color stands for the Sahara, the green symbolizes the south rainforests as well
as the hope, the white represents the Niger river and purity. The sun in the
middle is a symbol of the will of the people to defend its rights.
What does the flag of Niger look like? Follow this link, then you will see
the image in PNG format and flag meaning description about this country.
Niger - Prehistory
Niger - Prehistory, Archaeological finds show that man has settled in the
country during periods of wetter climates, more lush vegetation and richer
wildlife than in the present. At Blaka Kallia in northern Niger there
are found acheulé- type towels from the older mansion. Several places are known
from the atérienne culture, approximately 40,000-30,000 years before now, with
well-shaped, flat-cut flint tips. During the driest and coolest part of the last
ice age, 30,000-15,000 years ago, the desert spread and the area seems
In the humid climate prevailing at the end of the ice age, hunters and
fishermen settled down by rivers and lakes. Plant breeding began early and the
oldest pottery in the Sahara is found at Tagalagal in the Aïr Mountains, dating
to 9000-8000 BC. Numerous Neolithic settlements are known from the 6th
millennium to the 2nd millennium, the most extensive being found at Adrar Bous,
where cattle breeding was practiced from 4700-4500 BC. This is known from stone
tools, manufactured among others. of green jasper. The extraction and
processing of copper from local deposits took place around Agadèz from approximately 2000
BC, while iron manufacturing is known from approximately 300 BC.
- TOPSCHOOLSINTHEUSA: Provides exam dates and a list of test centers for
both GRE General Test and Subject Tests in Niger. Also includes GRE scoring
information and test preparation tips throughout the country.
Niger - History
Niger - History, The western part of Niger was from approximately 1100, part of
the Songhair kingdom that extended into present-day Mali. The southern part of
the country was dominated by the Hausa states during the same period, and in the
northern part the Tuareg people are believed to have ruled from about 1200.
The French colonialization of the area progressed from west to east and north
from the 1880's to approximately 1920. In 1922, Niger transitioned from a military to a
civilian colony administration.
At the independence of 1960, the Party of progressist Nigeria-Rassemblement
démocratique africain (PPN-RDA) came to power with Hamani Diori as
president. Diori concentrated power on the presidency, and despite the
democratic constitution, Niger was in fact a one-party government. Drought,
economic crisis and political discontent with the regime in 1974 led to a
military coup led by Seyni Kountché. He suspended the constitution and
dissolved the political parties. For the first years, Kountché neutralized all
potential opposition by either banning it or incorporating it into the regime's
political unity organization, the Société de développement. Kountché's
successor, Ali Saibou, transformed the organization into a political party, the
Mouvement national pour la société de développement (MNSD), and in 1989
reintroduced a constitution that secured the MNSD, the only political party, and
the president all political power.
Political discontent led to general strikes and in 1992 to the introduction
of a democratic constitution. In the 1993 parliamentary elections, three parties
successfully managed to win over MNSD, including the Convention Democratique et
Social (CDS) and the Party for Democracy and Le Progress (PNDS). In the
subsequent presidential election, Mahamane Ousmane won from CDS. However, the
state economy was in deep crisis. Wages for state employees, including the army,
were absent, and there was constant political unrest with strikes and minor
mutiny. After the government coalition disbanded in 1994, the government
transferred to MNSD and PNDS.
In 1996, the military again assumed power under the leadership of Chief of
Staff General Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara (1949-99). The country's fourth
constitution was passed by a referendum in May 1996. Maïnassara was elected at
the following presidential election, which was criticized internationally. In
protest, most parties boycotted the following parliamentary elections. In 1999,
Maïnassara was assassinated by a military coup. The leader of the coup, Major
Daouda Mallam Wanké (1954? -2004), formed government with, among other
things, opposition. The board announced a nine-month transition period until the
adoption of a democratic constitution.
In 1999, voters supported the new constitution that paved the way for
presidential elections and elections to parliament. Mamadou Tandja (b. 1938) was
elected new president and his party, the Mouvement national pour la société de
développement (MNSD), became the largest party in parliament. In 2002, unrest
erupted in the army due to lack of payroll. Niger was in the spotlight in 2003
when, among other things, US President George Bush claimed that Iraq had
previously tried to buy uranium in Niger for the production of nuclear
weapons. However, the allegation turned out to be wearing nothing. Mamadou
Tandja was re-elected to the presidential post in 2004. Under his rule, some
political stability was achieved.
A controversial referendum in 2009 that changed the constitution so that the
president could continue in office for two periods of five years caused great
turmoil and the world community isolating the country and halting national aid.
A military coup in February 2010 ousted President Tandje and his
government. After that, the military had the power, even though there was the
promise of holding democratic elections. In March 2011, elections were finally
held, and here Mahamadou Issoufou (b. 1952) was elected new president.