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North Korea History

North Korea (National Flag)North Korea (National Flag)

The flag was officially adopted in 1948. The colors of Korea's old flag have been retained. The star represents the Korean Workers' Party, and the dominant red color indicates that the country has chosen the path of socialism. The white color is the Korean national color that has been used for centuries as a symbol of purity, strength and dignity, and the blue color stands for peace and progress.

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North Korea (History)

About North Korea's history before approximately 1950, in Korea. After World War II, the Japanese handed over the colony of Korea to the Allies, who had agreed on a division at the 38th parallel; the northern part was occupied by the Soviet army. On September 9, 1948, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established with Kim Il-Sung as leader and chairman of the Korean Workers' Party (Communist Party), after which the Red Army left the country. Shortly before, the Provost Republic of Korea (South Korea) had been formed. The division quickly came to reflect the Cold War, and on June 25, 1950, the Korean War broke out., when North Korea invaded South Korea to "liberate" the country and reunite the two. The war had North Korea and China, which intervened in November 1950, on one side and South Korea and the United Nations on the other. The Korean War ended with the armistice agreement on July 27, 1953.

North Korea's situation after 1953 was marked by relations with neighboring countries: in the north the two rival communist countries China and the Soviet Union, on whose support one was dependent, and in the south a system oriented towards the United States in particular, which maintained a military presence in South Korea. North Korea chose a selective isolationist policy and developed a state ideology, juche, which emphasized economic, political, and cultural independence. With the leadership cult around Kim Il-Sung, the Koreans sought to establish a political system in accordance with the country's traditional political culture, where a powerful leader was to show care for the people, the loyal subjects. At Kim Jong-Il in 1994 and Kim Jong-Un in 2011 were able to take over the leadership role of their fathers, showed that the political system is based more on traditional Korean political culture than on communist ideology.

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The country's international isolation, originally self-elected and highlighted as a strength, came to seal North Korea's fate. With the collapse of the Soviet Union and the other socialist countries, China's transition to a directed market economy, and the establishment of diplomatic relations with South Korea, North Korea stood virtually alone from the early 1990's.

North Korea History

The North Korean self-help ideology, juche, did not survive the collapse of the communist world. After years of mishap, floods and droughts in the 1990's, North Korea had to abandon its self-sufficiency strategy, and the country has been dependent on foreign aid since the early 1990's. While neighboring countries implemented a political and economic reorientation, the North Korean regime maintained a model seemingly without flexibility. A relatively advanced weapons technology is one of the country's few assets, but is at the same time the factor that creates conflict with the outside world. The regime repeatedly denied access to IAEA inspectors (International Atomic Energy Agency), and the continued North Korean military research in missile technology was viewed with concern by both South Korea and Japan; the country repeatedly fired test missiles over the Sea of ​​Japan, leading to serious crises with neighboring countries, and the regime also claimed to be in possession of nuclear weapons. South Korea and China are the main foreign players in the North Korean reform process. However, crucial to the country's future - and to a possible reunification of Korea - is US policy and role in the region.

The tense relationship with the United States was further aggravated when US President George W. Bush in 2002 described North Korea as part of an "axis of evil" and when the country carried out a nuclear test in 2006. In 2007, an agreement was reached with the IAEA, which provided access for inspectors with a view to dismantling the nuclear weapons program. The Yongbyon reactor was shut down and in return the country received financial support and food aid from the outside world. During 2008, the country's relations with the outside world deteriorated again, e.g. in connection with test launches of missiles, and harsh sanctions were imposed. In May 2009, North Korea again conducted a nuclear test, leading to widespread condemnation from around the world, including China. The convictions were followed up the following month by further sanctions, including relating to. search of North Korean ships in international waters. Prior to the adoption of the UN sanctions, North Korea had announced that it would consider searches as an act of war, and immediately after the adoption of the UN sanctions, it announced that it would implement a nuclear weapons program.

Tensions on the Korean Peninsula were further increased with the sinking of the South Korean naval vessel Cheonan on March 26, 2010; it was concluded that North Korea was behind it, although the country itself denied it. The episode led in July of the same year to tougher sanctions from the United States. In November 2010, North Korea revealed that the country had sophisticated equipment for enriching uranium and thus a greater capacity to manufacture nuclear weapons than previously thought. Later that month, North Korea bombed the South Korean island of Yeonpyeong and South Korea responded to the fire. The level of tension was then judged to be at its highest level since the Korean War.

After Kim Jong-Il's death in 2011, his son, Kim Jong-Un, took overthe power; it was thus emphasized that North Korea is in fact a monarchy under the leadership of the Kim dynasty. Kim Jong-Un's takeover was accompanied by replacements of several people at the top of the power hierarchy. His control of the military was confirmed by a nuclear test in February 2013, which served to further isolate North Korea. China, the country's only ally, also criticized the blast. In January 2016, North Korea proclaimed that it had detonated a small hydrogen bomb. On the one hand, it helped to increase tensions in the region, and on the other, concerns arose as to whether the country would soon be able to advance nuclear weapons with intercontinental missiles. The blast was condemned by the international community and also heavily criticized by China, which had not been informed in advance.

North Korea (Military)

The Armed Forces is (2006) at 1,106,000 and the fourth largest in the world. The length of service for conscripts is 5-12 years in the Army, 5-10 years in the Navy and 3-4 years in the Air Force. The army is at 950,000, the navy at 46,000 and the air force at 110,000. The reserve is 4.7 million, of which 665,000 reinforce the regular units, the rest are used in a territorial defense militia. The equipment in all three defenses is for the most part from the 1950's and 1960's and of Soviet or Chinese make.

The Army ("People's Army Land Force") is, to the extent that resources are sufficient, heavily equipped according to the Soviet model. With the long period of service, the force must be assessed to be able to be maintained on real war readiness. A large part of the army, 88,000, is part of special units, some of which have been used periodically to infiltrate South Korea. The Navy ("People's Army Navy Force") is essentially a coastal defense navy, which, however, has a strong submarine weapon. The Air Force ("People's Army Air Force") is a traditional fighter/fighter bomber air force, and over half of the aircraft are obsolete. In general, the greatest weakness of the forces is the high material age, which reflects the critical economic situation of the country. The security forces total 189,000.

In 1998, North Korea tested the ballistic missile Taepodong-1 by letting it fly over Japan. The launch was officially referred to as a satellite launch. In 2006 and 2009, North Korea conducted underground nuclear tests, and it is estimated that the country is capable of producing nuclear weapons.

 

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