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Paraguay History

Paraguay - national flagParaguay - national flag

The flag was officially adopted in 1842 on the basis of a flag from 1812, and the colors are probably inspired by the French tricolor. The flag is the only one in the world with a different front and back. On the front is the state emblem from 1842, on the back the Ministry of Finance's seal with lion, "freedom hat" and the motto peace and justice.

  • Countryaah: What does the flag of Paraguay look like? Follow this link, then you will see the image in PNG format and flag meaning description about this country.

Paraguay - history

Before Europeans came to the area, the land between the Paraguay and Paraná rivers was inhabited by the Guaraní Indians, a partly nomadic warrior people who lived by agriculture, hunting and fishing. The first Spaniards arrived in 1524.

The colonial era

Domingo Martínez de Irala founded the first settlements in 1536-56. Asunción became the most important city in southeastern South America, and from here departed the expeditions that founded Argentine cities such as Corrientes, Santa Fé and Buenos Aires.

In the southeastern part of Paraguay, the Jesuits divided the indigenous population into 32 villages that served as religious and economic centers. This social experiment lasted for approximately 150 years, but in 1767 the Jesuits were exiled after conflicts with the Spanish and Portuguese colonial masters. In 1776, the Viceroyalty of Río de la Plata, the capital of Buenos Aires, was founded, and Paraguay, part of the Viceroyalty, lost importance.

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Independence and development in the 1800's.

In 1810, Paraguay refused to be subject to the newly formed independent government of Argentina, and on May 14, 1811, the country declared independence.

Paraguay History

After a period of anarchy and unrest, José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia took power in 1813 and ruled the country until his death in 1840. During his tenure, Paraguay sought to become self-sufficient and isolated from neighboring countries. Francia confiscated lands and fortunes from the upper class and let them pass to the state.

In 1844, Carlos Antonio López was appointed president. He continued the policy of his predecessor until approximately 90% of all land was owned by the state. The creation of state-owned enterprises, the strengthening of education and a general modernization were accompanied by a strengthening of the military-industrial complex, which was due to the fact that the country felt threatened by both Argentina and Brazil.

In 1862, Francisco Solano López succeeded his father in the presidency. 1865-70 Paraguay was at war with the Triple Alliance Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay. The war, which became one of Latin America's bloodiest, devastated the country: Out of a population in Paraguay of approximately 520,000 survived approximately 221,000, of which approximately 29,000 men.

In 1887, General Bernardino Caballero (1840-1912) founded the Colorado Party. The opposition described itself as los Liberales, and until approximately In 1900, political ideologies were diffuse. Contrary to Colorado's basic ideas, in 1876-1904 it sold land and state-owned enterprises abroad to cover the state's expenses, which laid the groundwork for the widespread large-scale operation of Paraguay (see latifundio).

1900's and 2000's.

In 1932-35, the Chaco War was fought against Bolivia, which Paraguay won.

From 1936 began a politically turbulent time with a series of coups and a short-lived civil war. In 1954, General Alfredo Stroessner seized power in a coup supported by Colorado and the Army, and pursued a highly oppressive policy. The first multi-party election was held in 1963; Stroessner won by election fraud and remained in power until 1989. His reign was marked by great economic progress, supported by the United States and Brazil.

Heads of State in Committees
1932-36 Eusebio Ayala
1936-37 Rafael Franco
1937-39 Félix Paiva
1939-40 José Félix Estigarribia
1940-48 Higinio Moránigo
1949-54 Federico Chávez
1954-89 Alfredo Stroessner
1989-93 Andrés Rodráguez
1993-98 Juan Carlos Wasmosy
1998-99 Raúl Cubas Grau
1999-2003 Luis González Macchi
2003-2008 Nicanor Duarte Frutos
2008-2012 Fernando Lugo Mendéz
2012-2013 Federico Franco
2013- Horacio Cartes

In February 1989, Stroessner was deposed by a group of officers led by Generals Lino Oviedo (b. 1943) and Andrés Rodríguez.; the latter took over the presidency. Since 1993, Paraguay has undergone a not entirely trouble-free democratic process; In 1993 and 1998, free and democratic elections were held, both of which allowed the Colorado Party to retain power. When General Oviedo, now Commander-in-Chief, attempted a military coup in 1996, internal divisions arose; first, Oviedo was made a presidential candidate, then sentenced to ten years in prison for coup attempts. The president later granted him an amnesty, after which the Supreme Court tried to imprison him. The fight culminated in 1999 when the vice president was assassinated and both the president and Oviedo fled the country. Senate President Luis Angel González (b. 1947) was made President until 2003, but the opposition captured the Vice Presidential election in 2000. At the same time, the country's economic crisis intensified. The 2003 presidential election was won by Nicanor Duarte Frutos of the Colorado Party. From 2003, it was possible to turn economic development around to modest growth. In 2008 came the historic shift in power, with the Colorado Party finally having to relinquish power when the presidential election was won by the former bishopFernando Lugo. The election of him was an expression of a political left turn of the country, although he himself denies being left-leaning. However, Lugo did not succeed in carrying out the land reforms he had promised; The Colorado Party still had great influence in Congress and could block such initiatives.

Lugo was deposed in coup-like circumstances in 2012. He had been criticized for his handling of a conflict between landless and police that cost 17 people their lives. A federal court forced Lugo to resign. The move was heavily criticized by neighboring countries, and Paraguay was temporarily suspended from the MERCOSUR trade bloc. In the 2013 presidential election, the Colorado Party succeeded in regaining power when its candidate, the rich man Horacio Cartes, won.

 

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