Portugal - national flag
Portugal's flag was officially approved in 1911. The flag shows the coat of
arms, which was taken over almost unchanged by the republic in 1910. Before
that, Portugal's flag was blue and white. These colors are still seen in the
middle of the weapon. Behind the shield is a nautical instrument, which refers
to Henrik Søfareren. The colors green and red stand for respectively. the
voyages of discovery and the revolution of 1910.
What does the flag of Portugal look like? Follow this link, then you will
see the image in PNG format and flag meaning description about this country.
Portugal - prehistory
Some finds of hand wedges testify to the human presence in the older and
middle Paleolithic. From the Late Paleolithic, approximately 35,000-9300 BC, settlements
are known in rock caves. In the Mesolithic, the hunter-gatherers exploited the
resources of the coast, leaving behind kitchen manure, in which the dead were
also buried, as at Muge near the mouth of the Tajo River. Agriculture was
introduced approximately 5000 BC Megalithic tombs in the form of dolmens and burial
chambers are known from the 4th millennium BC, some with chambers of impressive
dimensions, but burial chambers carved into the rocks were also used. Extraction
and processing of copper increased in the 3rd millennium BC. At the same time,
fortresses such as Zambujal and Vila Nova de São Pedro belong near Lisbon. The
bell cup culturewas towards approximately 2000 BC synonymous with the ruling warrior
elite, who also dominated in the following Bronze Age, which is expressed in
rich tomb finds and tombstones with warrior symbols. I 500-300-tfKr. came the
country under the influence of the Phoenicians. Fortified urban communities in
the northern part of the country were in the Iron Age influenced by Celtic
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Portugal - history
Portugal's history does not differ from Spain's until the 1000's, when the
term terra portucalense or provincia portucalense appeared as
a designation for the area between Braga and the river Vouga. With the advance
of the Reconquista, Coimbra was conquered by the Arabs in 1064, and these two
territories were given by Ferdinand I of Castile and León to one of his
generals. In 1095, Alfonso VI gave them to Henry of Burgundy (1057-1112), when
Henry married Alfonso's illegitimate daughter Teresa (1070-1130). After Henry's
death, Teresa began to call herself Queen of Portugal in 1121, but Alfonso VII
invaded the area and reduced it to mere vassal status.
Portugal - History (Independence)
Teresa's son Alfonso 1. Henriques became the one who created Portugal's
independence. His policy was based on the expansion of the territory at the
expense of the Muslims, on the independence of Castile and on a close connection
with the papacy. Negotiations in Rome led in 1138 to the creation of the
archbishopric of Braga, on which occasion Alfonso used the title King of
Portugal. The following year he was strengthened by the victory over the Muslims
at Ourique, and at a meeting in Zamora in 1143 Alfonso VII of Castile and León
recognized his title. The expansion to the south continued and led to the
conquest of Santarém and Lisbon in 1147. The subsequent kings continued the
Reconquista, which for Portugal ended in 1249 with the conquest of the last
fortresses in the Algarve, over which Portugal was recognized in 1297. After the
Reconquista, Portugal devoted itself to internal colonization, led by military
and religious orders. Extensive agriculture was the basis of wealth, but over
time a fleet was built with Genoese aid, opening up trade links to North Africa
and the European countries out to the Atlantic.
During the 1300-t. relations with Castile changed. Several times Castile
claimed territory in Extremadura, and Ferdinand I the Great launched a war
(1369-83) against Castile. During the war he changed politics and allied himself
with Granada, Aragon and the Duke of Lancaster, who also sought the Castilian
crown. The conflict ended with the marriage of Ferdinand I's daughter Beatriz
and Juan I of Castile. Although it was agreed that the two crowns should not be
reconciled, Castile invaded Portugal after Ferdinand's death in 1383. At that
time, the citizens turned to the Order of the Order of Avis, Johan, whom they
appointed "the defender and regent of the kingdom." The clergy and nobility
sided with the Castilian king, but the Castilian army, which had besieged
Lisbon, was forced to retire due to plague. In 1385, the Master of the Order was
proclaimed king under the name of Johan I, and in the same year he defeated the
Castilians decisively at Aljubarrota, but it was not until 1411 that peace was
Portugal - Kings and Presidents
|The house Burgundy Sort
||Alfonso 1. Henriques
||Alfonso 3. *
||Ferdinand 1. the Excellent
||Alfonso 5. (Afrikaneren)
|Under Spanish rule
|The House of Habsburg
||Philip I (Philip II of Spain)
||Philip II (Philip III of Spain)
||Philip III (Philip IV of Spain)
|The house Bragança
||Peter III, common rule with Mary 1.
||Maria 1., joint government with Peter 3.
||Mary 2. of Glory
||Mary 2. of Glory
|*: regent 1245-48, king 1248-79
||Joaquim Teófilo Braga
||Manoel José de Arriaga
||Joaquim Teófilo Braga
||Bernardino Luás Machado Guimarães
||Sidónio Bernardino Cardoso da Silva Pais
||João do Canto e Castro
||António José de Almeida
||Manuel Teixeira Gomes
||Bernardino Luás Machado Guimarães
||Antonio Oscar de Fragoso Carmona
||Francisco Higino Craveiro Lopes
||America of Deus Rodrigues Tomás
||António de Spánola
||Francisco da Costa Gomes
||Aníbal Cavaco Silva
||Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa
Portugal - visual art
Despite the fact that the foundation of the Portuguese nation-state was
created in the early 12th century, one must go all the way to the 15th century,
before an independent Portuguese art breaks through in both painting and
sculpture, but with clear influences from Flemish art.
This is reflected in the altarpieces of the painter Nuño Gonçalves, such as
the worship of São Vicente (1470, Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga,
Lisbon), which shows the worship of 60 famous Portuguese by the patron saint of
Lisbon, Saint Vincent.
The main works in Gothic sculptural art include the richly decorated portals
of the cathedrals of Évora and Batalha as well as the sarcophagi (14th century)
of the church of Real Abadia de Santa Maria in Alcobaça.
In the 16th century, the Renaissance came to Portugal; one of the most
prominent representatives of the period was the painter Vasco Fernandes (Grão
Vasco) (approximately 1475-1542), with the main work Saint Peter on the throne from
the 16th century, found at the Museu de Grão Vasco.
In the 1530's, the Renaissance also gained influence from the French side with
the sculptor Nicolas de Chanterène (approximately 1485-1555), who worked in the university
town of Coimbra. The artists of the Coimbra school are richly represented in the
city's churches, in the church of Santa Cruz.
Many churches in the Baroque were adorned with lavishly gilded wood
carvings, talha dourada. In the late 17th century, a new artistic
flourishing took place. One of the main works is the Joaquim Machado de Castros
(approximately 1730-1822) late Baroque equestrian statue from 1775 by José I (1714-77) on
the Praça do Comércio in Lisbon.
Portuguese painting in the 19th century was predominantly rooted in
Romanticism. This included the portrait painter Luíz de Miranda Pereira Visconde
de Menezes (1817-78) and the landscape painter Tomás José da Anunciação
Impressionism was introduced by the association Grupo do Leão, formed in 1880
around the painter António Carvalho da Silva Porto (1850-93). The most important
sculptor of the period was António Soares dos Reis (1847-89).
Among the painters of the 20th century, mention should be made in particular
of the Cubist-inspired Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso (1887-1918), who together with
Eduardo Viana (1885-1967) introduced modernism with the magazines Orpheu and
Portugal Futurista, founded respectively. 1815 and 1817, as focal points.
However, the Portuguese modernists were relatively few, which is why Paris
soon became the gathering place of the avant-garde, for the abstract
painter Maria-Elena Vieira da Silva.
Prominent artists after World War II are Joaquín Rodrigo and Jose de
Guimarães (b. 1939), both under the influence of American pop art.