U.S. Private Schools Finder
Africa Latin America Central America Oceania Asia Europe

You are here: Home > Portugal

Portugal History

Portugal - national flagPortugal - national flag

Portugal's flag was officially approved in 1911. The flag shows the coat of arms, which was taken over almost unchanged by the republic in 1910. Before that, Portugal's flag was blue and white. These colors are still seen in the middle of the weapon. Behind the shield is a nautical instrument, which refers to Henrik Søfareren. The colors green and red stand for respectively. the voyages of discovery and the revolution of 1910.

  • Countryaah: What does the flag of Portugal look like? Follow this link, then you will see the image in PNG format and flag meaning description about this country.

Portugal - prehistory

Some finds of hand wedges testify to the human presence in the older and middle Paleolithic. From the Late Paleolithic, approximately 35,000-9300 BC, settlements are known in rock caves. In the Mesolithic, the hunter-gatherers exploited the resources of the coast, leaving behind kitchen manure, in which the dead were also buried, as at Muge near the mouth of the Tajo River. Agriculture was introduced approximately 5000 BC Megalithic tombs in the form of dolmens and burial chambers are known from the 4th millennium BC, some with chambers of impressive dimensions, but burial chambers carved into the rocks were also used. Extraction and processing of copper increased in the 3rd millennium BC. At the same time, fortresses such as Zambujal and Vila Nova de São Pedro belong near Lisbon. The bell cup culturewas towards approximately 2000 BC synonymous with the ruling warrior elite, who also dominated in the following Bronze Age, which is expressed in rich tomb finds and tombstones with warrior symbols. I 500-300-tfKr. came the country under the influence of the Phoenicians. Fortified urban communities in the northern part of the country were in the Iron Age influenced by Celtic culture.

  • TOPSCHOOLSINTHEUSA: Provides exam dates and a list of test centers for both GRE General Test and Subject Tests in Portugal. Also includes GRE scoring information and test preparation tips throughout the country.

Portugal - history

Portugal's history does not differ from Spain's until the 1000's, when the term terra portucalense or provincia portucalense appeared as a designation for the area between Braga and the river Vouga. With the advance of the Reconquista, Coimbra was conquered by the Arabs in 1064, and these two territories were given by Ferdinand I of Castile and León to one of his generals. In 1095, Alfonso VI gave them to Henry of Burgundy (1057-1112), when Henry married Alfonso's illegitimate daughter Teresa (1070-1130). After Henry's death, Teresa began to call herself Queen of Portugal in 1121, but Alfonso VII invaded the area and reduced it to mere vassal status.

Portugal History

Portugal - History (Independence)

Teresa's son Alfonso 1. Henriques became the one who created Portugal's independence. His policy was based on the expansion of the territory at the expense of the Muslims, on the independence of Castile and on a close connection with the papacy. Negotiations in Rome led in 1138 to the creation of the archbishopric of Braga, on which occasion Alfonso used the title King of Portugal. The following year he was strengthened by the victory over the Muslims at Ourique, and at a meeting in Zamora in 1143 Alfonso VII of Castile and León recognized his title. The expansion to the south continued and led to the conquest of Santarém and Lisbon in 1147. The subsequent kings continued the Reconquista, which for Portugal ended in 1249 with the conquest of the last fortresses in the Algarve, over which Portugal was recognized in 1297. After the Reconquista, Portugal devoted itself to internal colonization, led by military and religious orders. Extensive agriculture was the basis of wealth, but over time a fleet was built with Genoese aid, opening up trade links to North Africa and the European countries out to the Atlantic.

During the 1300-t. relations with Castile changed. Several times Castile claimed territory in Extremadura, and Ferdinand I the Great launched a war (1369-83) against Castile. During the war he changed politics and allied himself with Granada, Aragon and the Duke of Lancaster, who also sought the Castilian crown. The conflict ended with the marriage of Ferdinand I's daughter Beatriz and Juan I of Castile. Although it was agreed that the two crowns should not be reconciled, Castile invaded Portugal after Ferdinand's death in 1383. At that time, the citizens turned to the Order of the Order of Avis, Johan, whom they appointed "the defender and regent of the kingdom." The clergy and nobility sided with the Castilian king, but the Castilian army, which had besieged Lisbon, was forced to retire due to plague. In 1385, the Master of the Order was proclaimed king under the name of Johan I, and in the same year he defeated the Castilians decisively at Aljubarrota, but it was not until 1411 that peace was finally secured.

Portugal - Kings and Presidents

Kings
The house Burgundy Sort
1139-85 Alfonso 1. Henriques
1185-1211 Sancho 1.
1211-23 Alfonso 2.
1223-45 Sancho 2.
1245-79 Alfonso 3. *
1279-1325 Dinis (Dionysios)
1325-57 Alfonso 4.
1357-67 Peter 1.
1367-83 Ferdinand 1. the Excellent
Huset Avís
1385-1433 Johan 1.
1433-38 Eduard (Duarte)
1438-81 Alfonso 5. (Afrikaneren)
1481-95 Johan 2.
1495-1521 Manuel 1.
1521-57 Johan 3.
1557-78 Sebastião
1578-80 Henrik
Under Spanish rule
The House of Habsburg
1580-98 Philip I (Philip II of Spain)
1598-1621 Philip II (Philip III of Spain)
1621-40 Philip III (Philip IV of Spain)
The house Bragança
1640-56 Johan 4.
1656-83 Alfonso 6.
1683-1706 Peter 2.
1707-50 Johan 5.
1750-77 José 1.
1777-84 Peter III, common rule with Mary 1.
1777-1816 Maria 1., joint government with Peter 3.
1816-26 Johan 6.
1826 Peter 4.
1826 Mary 2. of Glory
1828-34 Miguel 1.
1834-53 Mary 2. of Glory
1853-61 Peter 5.
1861-89 Louis 1.
1889-1908 Karl 1.
1908-10 Manuel 2.
*: regent 1245-48, king 1248-79

Presidents
First Republic
1910-11 Joaquim Teófilo Braga
1911-15 Manoel José de Arriaga
1915 Joaquim Teófilo Braga
1915-17 Bernardino Luás Machado Guimarães
1917-18 Sidónio Bernardino Cardoso da Silva Pais
1918-19 João do Canto e Castro
1919-23 António José de Almeida
1923-25 Manuel Teixeira Gomes
1925-26 Bernardino Luás Machado Guimarães
Second Republic
1928-51 Antonio Oscar de Fragoso Carmona
1951-58 Francisco Higino Craveiro Lopes
1958-74 America of Deus Rodrigues Tomás
Third Republic
1974 António de Spánola
1974-76 Francisco da Costa Gomes
1976-86 Ramalho Eanes
1986-96 Mario Soares
1996-2006 Jorge Sampaio
2006-16 Aníbal Cavaco Silva
2016- Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa

Portugal - visual art

Despite the fact that the foundation of the Portuguese nation-state was created in the early 12th century, one must go all the way to the 15th century, before an independent Portuguese art breaks through in both painting and sculpture, but with clear influences from Flemish art.

This is reflected in the altarpieces of the painter Nuño Gonçalves, such as the worship of São Vicente (1470, Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga, Lisbon), which shows the worship of 60 famous Portuguese by the patron saint of Lisbon, Saint Vincent.

The main works in Gothic sculptural art include the richly decorated portals of the cathedrals of Évora and Batalha as well as the sarcophagi (14th century) of the church of Real Abadia de Santa Maria in Alcobaça.

In the 16th century, the Renaissance came to Portugal; one of the most prominent representatives of the period was the painter Vasco Fernandes (Grão Vasco) (approximately 1475-1542), with the main work Saint Peter on the throne from the 16th century, found at the Museu de Grão Vasco.

In the 1530's, the Renaissance also gained influence from the French side with the sculptor Nicolas de Chanterène (approximately 1485-1555), who worked in the university town of Coimbra. The artists of the Coimbra school are richly represented in the city's churches, in the church of Santa Cruz.

Many churches in the Baroque were adorned with lavishly gilded wood carvings, talha dourada. In the late 17th century, a new artistic flourishing took place. One of the main works is the Joaquim Machado de Castros (approximately 1730-1822) late Baroque equestrian statue from 1775 by José I (1714-77) on the Praça do Comércio in Lisbon.

Portuguese painting in the 19th century was predominantly rooted in Romanticism. This included the portrait painter Luíz de Miranda Pereira Visconde de Menezes (1817-78) and the landscape painter Tomás José da Anunciação (1818-79).

Impressionism was introduced by the association Grupo do Leão, formed in 1880 around the painter António Carvalho da Silva Porto (1850-93). The most important sculptor of the period was António Soares dos Reis (1847-89).

Among the painters of the 20th century, mention should be made in particular of the Cubist-inspired Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso (1887-1918), who together with Eduardo Viana (1885-1967) introduced modernism with the magazines Orpheu and Portugal Futurista, founded respectively. 1815 and 1817, as focal points.

However, the Portuguese modernists were relatively few, which is why Paris soon became the gathering place of the avant-garde, for the abstract painter Maria-Elena Vieira da Silva.

Prominent artists after World War II are Joaquín Rodrigo and Jose de Guimarães (b. 1939), both under the influence of American pop art.

 

 

AL AK AZ AR CA
CO CT DE FL GA
HI ID IL IN IA
KS KY LA ME MD
MA MI MN MS MO
MT NE NV NH NJ
NM NY NC ND OH
OK OR PA RI SC
SD TN TX UT VT
VA WA WV WI WY

 


Copyright 2020 U.S. Private Schools Finder All Rights Reserved