The flag was adopted in connection with independence in 2011. It was
originally the flagship movement SPLM's flag, which was used during the struggle
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The colors of the flag are symbols of the following: Red symbolizes the blood
of the martyrs who died during the struggle for independence, the white peace,
the blue Nile's life-giving water, and green symbolizing the country's natural
resources. Finally, the yellow star must show the way forward for the country.
In 1956, Sudan gained independence, but already at that time there were riots
in the southern part of the country when Arab-Muslim domination of the northern
area was feared. It evolved into a civil war that only ended in 1972, when South
Sudan gained partial autonomy.
However, in the early 1980's, a new civil war, the Second Sudanese Civil War,
came after the National Islamic Front gained more influence and Sharia (Islamic
law) was introduced in 1983. The rebel movement SPLM seized weapons and in 1989
had gained control of most of South Sudan. The protracted civil war became
unusually bloody, costing approximately 2 million people life and drive approximately 4
million on the run.
In 2002, peace talks began with the rebel movement. In 2005, a peace
agreement was signed which guaranteed South Sudan's extensive autonomy and the
right to hold a referendum on a possible detachment after six years. At the
election commenced on 9 January 2011 approximately 99% for a detachment from
Sudan. Exactly six months later, South Sudan was declared independent at a
large-scale ceremony in the new capital of Juba. At the same time, Salva Kiir,
the leader of the SPLM, was sworn in as the country's first president.
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In 2012, outbreaks erupted at the border with Sudan. rich oil fields. In
septemper so. agreements were reached between the two countries on oil exports
and the establishment of a demilitarized zone along the border. In late 2013, it
came to new riots when Riek Machar was dismissed as vice president and then
initiated a riot against President Salva Kiir. There are about 1
million. internally displaced and approximately 400,000 have left the country because
of the conflict; up to 100,000 have been killed (2015).