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Sudan History

Sudan - national flagSudan - national flag

Sudan - National Flag, The Flag was officially adopted in 1970. It was chosen after a competition when the Revolution in 1969 demanded a new national flag. It is based on the Arab flag of Egypt. The colors are the panarabic: red represents revolution, white peace, green fertility and black the native African nation.

  • Countryaah: What does the flag of Sudan look like? Follow this link, then you will see the image in PNG format and flag meaning description about this country.

Sudan - history

Sudan History, About Sudan's oldest history, see Nubia.

In the 500-h. assumed several kingdoms especially in North Sudan Christianity. The Arab conquest of Egypt from 639 was followed by attacks on the Sudanese territories, but an agreement was reached which long secured the Christian kingdoms. In the 1300's. however, a large-scale Arab immigration began and the Christian kingdoms went down. Subsequently, North and Central Sudan was dominated by a number of Islamic kingdoms, including Funj, until the Ottoman-Egyptian conquest of 1821.

In South Sudan, several Nilotic people established themselves from the 1400's; the most important were Dinka, Nuer and Shilluk, but the largest state formation was in the 1500-1600-t. created by azande, who are not nilots.

The Ottoman-Egyptian conquest of North Sudan was due, among other things, to the desire to obtain slaves, and the extensive slave trade had devastating consequences for most communities in South Sudan. Later in the 1800's. diminished Egypt's control of Sudan; instead, Europeans took over much of the trade with Sudan and tried to fight the slave trade.

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Egypt, coming under ever stronger European influence, from around 1870 tightened its grip on Sudan and penetrated further south. When Egypt became a British sound state in 1882, the unpopular Egyptian rule in Sudan collapsed, and the Mahdi uprising, the Muslim uprising that broke out under Muhammad Ahmad al-Mahdi's leadership the previous year, led to the Mahdi movement's conquest of Khartoum and the establishment of an Islamic state in 1885. Al-Mahdi died the same year, but the Mahadir kingdom existed and was finally defeated by the British under HH Kitchener's leadership at the Battle of Omdurman 1898. The following year, the Anglo-Egyptian condominium ('joint government') was established; see Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.

Attempts to resume opposition to the British were wiped out, and from the 1920's, Mahdism no longer posed any threat to the regime. The British initiated extensive investments in infrastructure and agriculture; the production of cotton and rubber arabic for export created a considerable working and middle class. A nationalist movement emerged in the interwar period, and the British, from the early 1940's, agreed to gradually give Sudanese more power. Sudan gained internal autonomy in 1953 and independence on 1.1.1956.

Sudan History

In the southern provinces, where Arab-Muslim domination in independent Sudan was feared, riots erupted, and the new regime thus took over a country in civil war. Weak governments already in 1958 allowed the military to take power, but the corruption and the ongoing civil war in 1964 led to a popular uprising that drove the military from power. The civilian regime that followed was divided, and Sudan's financial problems worsened; in 1969, the military under the command of Gaafar Nimeiri intervenedpower again. He was supported by Sudan's strong Communist Party and used the situation to fight the Islamists, and many were killed during massacres in 1970. However, after a failed, communist-backed military coup the following year, Nimeiri shifted political course and hit hard on the Communists. The financial problems remained unsolved and at the same time Sudan received more than 1 million. refugees from neighboring countries Ethiopia, Uganda and Chad. On the other hand, in 1972, they succeeded in ending the civil war in South Sudan, which gained partial autonomy.

In 1979, several Islamists joined the government and in 1983 introduced a politically weakened Nimeiri Islamic law (Sharia). It sparked a new civil war when the SPLM rebel movement in South Sudan under John Garang's (1943-2005) leadership seized weapons. The civil war gained international character, with the SPLM being supported by Ethiopia and receiving arms from the Soviet Union, Cuba, Kenya and Israel.

Nimeiri was overthrown in 1985 and the following year Sayyid al-Sadiq al-Mahdi was elected prime minister. Nor could he solve the country's problems; in 1989, when SPLM had gained control of most of South Sudan, he was deposed by the military under Umar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashirmanagement. The Constitution was suspended and even the most fundamental human rights have been hard-suppressed ever since. Al-Bashir, who was named president in 1993, is supported by the fundamentalist movement NIF (National Islamic Front); The NIF, founded by Hasan al-Turabi (b. 1930) on the basis of the Sudanese branch of the Muslim Brotherhood, is officially banned, like all other parties, but through the permissible umbrella organization the National Congress greatly controls and controls security forces, the courts, media, etc. The personal power struggle between al-Turabi and al-Bashir led to an open rupture in December 1999, when al-Bashir declared the state of emergency and disbanded the national assembly chaired by al-Turabi.

The UN imposed sanctions on Sudan in 1996 when it accused the country of harboring terrorists; these most symbolic sanctions were abolished in September 2001. However, the United States, which in 1998 attacked a pharmaceutical plant in Khartoum with missiles, allegedly following information that the factory produced chemical weapons, maintains its sanctions against the country.

At the same time as the introduction of a new constitution in 1999 allowing the establishment of a multi-party system in the country, the government ordered a state of emergency, which has since been extended for several years. The new constitution had no bearing on the civil war in the country, with the government continuing to fight several different resistance groups. However, neither party seems to be gaining ground in the matches. In the years both before and after 2000, attempts were made on several occasions to negotiate peace between the government and the rebel movements, especially with the SPLM, which fights for a free South Sudan, and with neighboring states that have become involved in the conflicts. In 2002, the so-called Machaco Protocol was signed, laying the ground for peace negotiations, which in 2005 culminated with a comprehensive peace agreement. This secured South Sudan's extensive self-government as well as the right to hold a referendum on possible elections after six years. secession. The vote was held in 2011 and led to South Sudan becoming an independent state. In addition, the constitution was democratized and SPLA was part of the government, including with the Vice President post. The Civil War 1983-2005 was one of the most bloody and long-lasting in Africa. It is believed that the war cost 2 million. people life; several millions are internally displaced in Sudan, and an unknown number fled abroad. It is believed that the war cost 2 million. people life; several millions are internally displaced in Sudan, and an unknown number fled abroad. It is believed that the war cost 2 million. people life; several millions are internally displaced in Sudan, and an unknown number fled abroad.

In 2003, however, a new and very bloody civil war in Darfur Province erupted between the government and local government-backed Janjaweed militias on the one hand and several rebel movements on the other. This conflict has also led to hundreds of thousands killed and even more displaced persons. Sudan has been sharply criticized for not ending its support for militants accused of serious war crimes in Darfur. In May 2006, after international pressure, a peace agreement was concluded, which some of the rebel groups rejected. Forces of the African Union, AU, has been deployed in Darfur, and at the end of 2006, the Sudanese government accepted, under pressure, that the UN could deploy forces into the province. New unrest in the area in 2013 led to a further approximately 6,000 killed and about 500,000 internally displaced.

In January 2011, there was unrest against the board. The development was inspired by the popular protests that arose in December 2010 in a number of Arab countries based on the Jasmine Revolution in Tunisia. In the capital Khartoum there was a clash between protesters and police; there were objected to the government's removal of subsidies on food products. To counter the protests, President al-Bashir announced that he will not run for the 2015 elections.

In the spring of 2012, border disputes arose between Sudan and South Sudan, but in September temper. agreements were concluded between the two countries on oil exports and the establishment of a demilitarized zone at the common border.

 

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