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Tajikistan History

Tajikistan - national flagTajikistan - national flag

The flag was officially adopted in 1992. The emblem in the middle, a crown surrounded by seven stars, is to symbolize the country's sovereignty as well as the unbreakable union of the republic's workers, peasants and intellectuals. Red points back to the time of the Soviet Union, white stands for cotton, and green for other agricultural products.

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Tajikistan - History

The Tajiks are descended from Iranian peoples, who have lived in the area from approximately 500-tfKr. The area was later part of the Persian Empire and Alexander the Great's empire. I 600-teKr. it was conquered by the Arabs, who were driven out by Persian forces in the 700-t.; the area was then incorporated into various Persian dynasties. In the 1700's. Uzbeks took control of present-day Tajikistan, but by then a separate Tajik population group had long since emerged. Most of the area was conquered by Russian forces in the 1860's. After the October Revolution, the Tajik Autonomous Republic was formed in 1924; this was first part of the Uzbek SSR before being transformed into the Tajik SSR in 1929.

Where the otherwise strict military administration in the period before 1917 had to a large extent allowed the Tajiks to preserve their own customs and laws, the transition to Soviet control became conflict-ridden. The so-called basmatji movement tried throughout the 1920's to fight the new rulers, but could not prevent the extensive upheavals, which entailed a purge of the local elite and the suppression of traditional culture.

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Following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, there was growing opposition to the regime in Tajikistan. It failed to stem a budding nationalism, and in 1990, the Tajik parliament declared the republic independent. The sudden political vacuum created by the Soviet Union collapse revealed deep regional tensions in Tajikistan. After several months of demonstrations, in May 1992 the opposition succeeded in securing the formation of a broad coalition government. The agreement, however, met with opposition among more radical elements within both groups, and in the summer of 1992 a civil war broke out. The conflict only came to an end with the signing of a peace agreement in June 1997; by this time at least 20,000 people had been killed, and more than 500,000 displaced.

The political tensions led to a series of rapid replacements of the head of state in 1991-92; however, the election of Emomali Rakhmon in November 1992 gave rise to some political stability; he has since ruled Tajikistan, first as head of parliament and from 1994 as president. The peace agreement meant that Rakhmon had to invite opposition people to his government, and the country got a reconciliation government in 1998.

Following the conclusion of the 1997 peace agreement, the Tajik people seem to have put the civil war behind them. A clear sign of this came in 2000, when the National Reconciliation Commission completed its work. Prior to that, the Commission had been involved in the implementation of political changes, including the creation of a new Parliament and in holding elections. However, the elections have helped to cement the distribution of power in the country. In 1999, President Rakhmon was re-elected with 97% of the vote, and in 2000, the President's party won an overwhelming victory in the election to the lower house of the new parliament. Both elections were described by observers as undemocratic, and the opposition continues to have cramped conditions in the country. However, measures have been taken to give the opposition a greater share of political responsibility, e.g. through the incorporation of its armed forces into the Tajik army.

Tajikistan History

However, the opposition has gained less and less political influence. The rules for registering parties have been tightened, several opposition leaders have been assassinated or arrested, and in 2003, in a dubious referendum, President Rakhmon was given the opportunity for another two terms seven years after the November 2006 presidential election., and for the purpose of re-election he has removed rivals from the political scene. He also won a clear victory in November 2006. All power is concentrated in the hands of the president, and the government and parliament are largely relegated to implementing his decisions. However, he is believed to enjoy significant support from the people, who see him as the man who created peace and order after the Civil War. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russia has played a crucial military and economic role in Tajikistan. Until 2005, Russian forces guarded the border with Afghanistan, and under a 2004 agreement between the two countries, Russia gained a military base that, with 5,000 men, is Russia's largest base abroad. In addition, Russia has acquired a former Soviet space surveillance center in Nurek, which is of great strategic importance. Although Russia has provided financial support to Tajikistan, the United States is the main donor with 50 million. dollars in 2004. After September 11, 2001, Tajikistan allowed the United States to use its air bases for military and humanitarian missions in Afghanistan. Relations with Uzbekistan are strained; by contrast, relations with Afghanistan have improved since the Taliban was forced out of power in 2001. Iran has begun investing in Tajikistan and trade has increased in the early 2000's. While bilateral cooperation with China is only in its infancy, there is significant military cooperation with India.

Tajikistan - literature

The Tajiks have a long and rich literary tradition with origins in Persian antiquity and the Middle Ages. These include the Avesta scripture collection and classical poets such as Firdausi, Omar Khayyam, Sadi and Jami. The panegyric and satirical also Persian poet Rudaki has recently given his name to Tajikistan's most prestigious literary prize. From 1000-t. also developed a fictional prose, and approximately In 1156, Nizomi Aruzi Samarkandi wrote the first Tajik memoir, Four Conversations. The Arab and Mongol invasions drove many writers into exile and created close relations with India, in addition to a special "Indian style" in poetry. The great popular epic Gurguli (1600-1700-t.) Is attributed to this period. Abdarrahman Mushfiki (approximately 1538-88) combined high style with heavy satire and even became a favorite figure in folk jokes.

In the 1800's. came the literature under the influence of the socially critical Russian realism. At the head of this direction was Ahmad Donish (1827-97). The prose writers Sadriddin Aini (1878-1954) and the Iranian Abulkasim Lahuti (1887-1957) are considered the founders of Tajik Soviet literature. Modern Tajik drama developed on the premises of Soviet ideology, led by Zatym Ulug-Zode (b. 1911). But the poets, such as Mirzo Tursun-Zade (1911-77), still acknowledged the legacy of classical poetry. After glasnost and the collapse of the Soviet Union, social and cultural life has been divided by civil war and crises. Many poets, such as Bozor Sobir (b. 1938), have joined the neo-national and neo-Islamic movement.

 

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