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Tanzania History

Tanzania - national flagTanzania - national flag

Tanzania - national flag, The flag was officially introduced in 1964. It is a combination of two party flag colors: green and black from TANU in Tanganyika, and green, black and blue from the Afro-Shirazi Party in Zanzibar. At the merger of the two states in 1964, the colors were combined diagonally so that neither of them took precedence. The added yellow stripes should symbolize mineral richness. The green color stands for the land, the black for the people, the blue for both Zanzibar and the sea.

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Tanzania - history

Tanzania - history, approximately 2 million year old fossilized human remains have been found in the Olduvai Gorge in Northern Tanzania. Immigration of Cushitic-speaking people, probably from the Ethiopian Highlands, began approximately 1000 BC About 500 AD agronomic Bantu groups from the south and west, and cattle nomadic nilots (ancestors of the Masai) from the north began to gradually populate the country. Both ethnic and territorial boundaries have been constantly changing, and the division of the population into approximately 120 permanently delineated tribes are largely the result of European colonial politics.

Already in the 1st century AD there were trade contacts to Arabia. From the end of the 1400-t. the coast was defeated by the Portuguese, who had supremacy until the mid-1600's, when Oman secured control. European contacts with Tanganyika had long been confined to the coastal towns which arose in connection with the slave and ivory trade in particular. Only during the 1800's. European explorers explored the interior of the country, and in the same period began Christian missionary activities.

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Oman's ruler Said ibn Sultan moved approximately 1840 its capital to Zanzibar. The island became an independent sultanate in 1861, but eventually lost its power. After strong pressure on the Sultan, the slave trade was formally abolished in 1873. In the following years Zanzibar lost its holdings on the mainland, and in 1890 the island became a British protectorate.

Presidents
1962-85 Julius Nyerere
1985-95 Ali Hassan Mwinyi
1995-2005 Benjamin Mkapa
2005-15 Jakaya Kikwete
2015 John Magufuli

On the mainland, through the broadcast, Carl Peters' agreements with local chiefs had acquired a number of possessions in 1884; they became the year after the first part of the rapidly growing German East Africa. The Germans based the economy of Tanganyika on plantation operations with widespread use of forced laborers. In addition, they introduced forced cultivation of cotton in particular on Africans' own use. The German colonial power repeatedly met with strong opposition, among other things. from the hehe people of the late 1890's and in the Maji-maji rebellion (1905-08) that were brutally fought and cost hundreds of thousands of Africans their lives.

Tanzania History

Tanganyika became a British protectorate after World War I. The indirect colonial rule of the British created some internal contradictions, but did not lead to organized rebellion, though much of the most fertile land was eventually granted to European immigrants. After World War II, the forerunners of the first political parties were formed. Tanganyika African National Union, TANU, founded by Julius Nyerere in 1954, gained an overwhelming majority in the 1958 and 1959 elections, paving the way for the peaceful transition to independence in 1961 with Nyerere as prime minister. The following year he became the country's first president.

The Sultanate of Zanzibar regained independence in 1963, but as early as 1964 an uprising, led by the Afro-Shirazi Socialist Party, ASP, led to the Sultan's expulsion. That same year, Zanzibar and Tanganyika united under the name of Tanzania and with Nyerere as president and ASP leader, Abeid Karume, as vice president. However, a thorough integration of the two countries was never achieved and the authoritarian Karume retained the power of the semi-autonomous Zanzibar until he was assassinated in 1972. Tanzania was from the beginning a one-party state with TANU as the only permitted party, ASP in Zanzibar excepted. In 1977, the two parties joined forces with Chama Cha Mapinduzi, CCM ('Revolutionary Party').

In 1967, Nyerere formulated his ideology in the Arusha Declaration. The goal was to create a Tanzania based on self-help, community (Ujamaa) and African socialism. The declaration was followed by extensive nationalizations of foreign-owned businesses and plantations, and the rural population gathered in large Ujamaa villages. In particular in the social and educational spheres, the policy produced some results, but among other things. village collections failed and Tanzania remained poor. In 1985, Nyerere retired; his successor, Ali Hassan Mwinyi (b. 1925), faced international pressure for reform, after which Tanzania again began to receive substantial loans and development assistance. Similarly, following strong international pressure, the one-party system was abolished, and in 1995 the first multi-party elections were held since independence. CCM won a convincing victory and the party's candidate, Benjamin Mkapa, became president.

Reforms in Tanzania have boosted parts of the economy, but also led to growing corruption and created great social inequality. Despite tensions between the mainland and Zanzibar as well as internally in Zanzibar, Tanzania has so far been one of Africa's most stable and peaceful countries. In 2000, Mkapa was re-elected with 72% of the vote. However, after the election there was political unrest in Zanzibar. CCM also won the election in 2005 and the party's candidate, Jakaya Kikwete, was elected as new president. At the 2010 election, he retained the presidential post.

Tanzania - economy

Tanzania economy When Tanganyika became independent in 1961, the agriculture-based economy was underdeveloped and the education system neglected; this was the background to the Arusha Declaration in 1967. The creation of Ujamaa villages, nationalization of industry and financial business, building a well-functioning education and health sector as well as a general orientation towards "socialism and self-confidence" became the cornerstones of the development model. In the period up to the end of the 1970's, welfare increased, too. because Tanzania received significant financial support, not least from China and the Scandinavian countries.

However, large current account deficits and large borrowing requirements led to heavy indebtedness abroad. After the second oil crisis in 1979, when the international borrowing rate dropped drastically, Tanzania faced so much trouble that in the mid-1980's the country had to apply for financial support from the International Monetary Fund. The counterclaim was a tightening of economic policy, devaluations and sweeping structural reforms. This has gradually resulted in the economy being liberalized and state enterprises privatized, and foreigners being given the opportunity to make direct investments in the country. In 1998, a stock exchange was opened in Dar es Salaam.

Despite the reform policy, economic growth during the 1990's could only keep pace with population growth, just as Tanzania failed to change its basic social structure. The government deficit and inflation are moderate, but the economy remains predominantly based on underdeveloped agriculture and on support from abroad, which corresponds to approximately 25% of the country's total production value. The economic growth of approximately 6% per year since 2000 is largely derived from aid. To reduce this dependence, the government has given a wider production base a high priority, not least in the form of an expansion of the mining industry. In addition, efforts are being made to improve the business climate through increased efforts against the growing corruption and infrastructure expansion; for example, the electricity supply fluctuates with the precipitation amounts.

Unstable export revenues due to fluctuating world commodity prices are a major reason why Tanzania has not been able to reverse the external balance sheet development and, despite debt relief from the Paris Club, is one of the most indebted in the world in terms of payment ability. The foreign trade, which is geographically dispersed and very small, shows a marked deficit. The main trading partners are China, South Africa and India. Denmark's exports to Tanzania totaled DKK 49 million in 2005. Imports therefrom were DKK 9 million. Tanzania has for a number of years been Denmark's most important aid partner; The appropriation for 2005 was DKK 443 million. kr.

 

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