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Tunisia History

Tunisia - national flagTunisia - national flag

The flag was taken into use approximately 1835, but was then primarily a military flag. Tunisia belonged until the end of the 1800's. during the Ottoman Empire, and the flag is therefore very reminiscent of the Turkish. The crescent moon has been the symbol of Islam since the 1400's. The star has come to later. When the country was under French administration, the French flag sat in the upper left corner.

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Tunisia - mass media

In Tunisia a dozen dailies are published. The media is controlled by the government; the party RCD publishes the daily newspaper Al-Horria (Freedom) in Arabic and Le Renouveau in French. Other major dailies are the government agency La Presse de Tunisie and the privately owned Assabah (Morning). Since 1972, it has been possible to receive television all over the country. The state radio and television, ERTT, operates two television channels and several radio stations. Radio was founded in 1938, television in 1957. In the early 2000-t. began broadcasting private radio and television stations, including Hannibal TV. Radio and television are the population's main sources of information, every other Tunisian home has access to satellite TV via satellite dish, and the internet is widespread according to regional conditions.

Tunisia - literature

After Tunisia's independence in 1956, an Arabic-language literature has emerged alongside the dominant French-language one. For example, Aroussia Nalouti (b. 1950) in the novel Tamâss (1995) has given a critical picture of the male-dominated society, seen through the journalist Zaynab's struggle for independence.

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Tunisia - film

After independence, the SATPEC semi-state company was established in 1960, which gained a monopoly on the import and distribution of films. The first Tunisian feature film, Omar Khlifis (b. 1934) Al fajr (1966, The Dawn), tells the story of national liberation in Arabic. That same year, the major Arab-African film festival Journées cinématographiques de Carthage, JCC, was founded.

The modest Tunisian film production of 4-5 films a year consists mainly of personal art films. In the 1990's, Tunisian film gained more international prominence, first with Férid Boughedir's Halfaouine - L'enfant des terrasses (1990, Halfaouine - behind the veil) and then with Les Silences du palais/Samt el qusur (1994, Palace of the Fortresses) by the female director Moufida Tlatli (b. 1946).

Tunisia History

Tunisia - wine

Tunisia produces approximately 50 mio. bottles of wine a year. 80% are soft and strong red wines with only a little acid, so they should be drunk young just like the rosé wines and the sweet muscat wine. About 30,000 ha are planted with grapes, but only half are used for wine, especially typical southern French grapes. The wines follow a French-inspired wine law with AOC, and 80% are made by state farms or cooperatives. 1/3 of the wine is exported; the rest are drunk mainly by tourists.

Tunisia - history

With the Phoenicians' colonization of the coastline in 1000 BC. the area, originally inhabited by Berbers, was incorporated into Mediterranean culture. Around 800 BC. Carthage, which dominated the area until the Roman conquest in 146 BC, was built. Thereafter, Tunisia became part of the Roman Empire and formed part of the province of Africa (see also Africa (history)). In 429, under the leadership of King Geiserik, the Vandals settled in the area where they established an independent kingdom. This was recaptured 533-534 by Emperor Justinian, and the area then became part of the Byzantine Empire.

Tunisia became part of the caliphate in 670 when Uqba ibn Nafi conquered the area and founded Kairouan; the city, which was the seat of the caliphate administration in the area and the starting point for the conquest of the rest of the Maghreb, became a significant center of learning and important for the caravan trade with West Africa. Different dynasties, such as the Aghlabids in the 800's. and the Fatimids from the 900's. to 1100-t., had at times the political control over the area. From 1228 the sea ​​sides held power in Tunisia, until in 1574 it came under Ottoman control, which, however, was often more formal than real; Tunisian bey(i.e. ruler) had for much of the 1700's. and the early 1800's. full control of the area against payment of an annual tribute to the Sultan of Istanbul.

With the French colonization of Algeria from 1830, Tunisia came under increasing pressure, as both France and Italy sought to secure influence. As a result of Beyen's modernization efforts, indebtedness increased, increasing European influence, and in 1881 Tunisia became a French protectorate.

Protectorate and independence

The French settlement was never as extensive in Tunisia as in Algeria, but the establishment of a French protectorate meant that agricultural production and later also the beginning of industrialization were organized according to the French market.

 

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