Angola Transport

Communications are still scarce and difficult. At the end of 1927, 1,852 km were in operation. of railways, divided between the following sections: a) of Loanda, or Trans-African Railway, of the Companhia do Caminho de Ferro: from Malange to Xissa, length 445 km., gauge 1 m. It was decided to extend it up to Cassange; b) from Loanda to Calumbo, 30 km., gauge i m.; c) Golungo Alto line, km. 31, gauge m. 0.60; d) Benguella Railway line, an English company affiliated with Tanganika Concessions Lt., from Lobito to the Congo border, for Benguella-Silva Porto-Munhango, km. 1100, gauge m. 1,067: with a 700 km long line. of the British South African and Belgian Congo Railway will be connected to Fungurume station on the Katanga line; And) government line from Mossamedes to Sa da Bandeira (Lubango), km. 246, gauge m. 0.60. A gauge line m. 1,067 from Bembé to Noqui, left bank of the Congo, km. 220. A network of roadways and motor vehicles crosses Angola for more than 20,000 km. Important is the one that goes from Malange to Saurimo (capital of Lunda, near Quimbungo) to the diamond fields of Lunda, km. 900; from Saurimo, during the dry season, you can reach the Benguella and Mossamedes plateau; in June 1924 the layout of a motor road over 1200 km long was completed. from Silva Porto to Fungurume (Katanga).

Angola’s postal and telegraphic service is sufficient for your needs. The telegraph network at the beginning of 1922 comprised 6,630 miles of overhead lines with 133 offices. The lines go from the coast to the interior and depart from Loanda, Novo Redondo, Benguella and Mossamedes. A telegraph line also leaves from Loanda, heading towards the N. along the coast as far as the Congo. A submarine cable (West African Telegraph Company) connects the ports of Loanda, Benguella and Mossamedes. The Loanda-island cable of San Tomé connects Angola to Portugal. The more practical and less expensive wireless telegraphy stations were developed by the state; radiotelegraphic communication with the metropolis and Mozambique is also ensured. For air communications, an airport has been built in Huambo, on the Benguella railway, in Novo Redondo and Saurimo; Lubango, Caconda and Benguella have landing fields.

The Congo River is navigable by large steamers up to Noqui, 100 miles from the coast; the Cuanza, the Cassai (for about 300 km. in their border sections), the Chicapa are navigable by motor launches from indigenous boats. The Cuanza is navigable from its mouth to Dondo, 160 km., By ships, then by boats up to the Kambamba floodgates. Above other rivers the navigation is reduced, by the cataracts, to more or less long sections.

According to DISEASESLEARNING, the west coast of Africa, so poor in access points, is more accessible in Angola than elsewhere. There are four large natural ports: Loanda, Lobito, Porto Alexandre, and Bahia dos Tigres and some minor ports or bays: S. Antonio do Zaire, Ambriz, Benguella, Mossamedes. For Cabinda, Ambriz, Benguella, Loanda, Mossamedes v. related items. Lobito, 43 km. at N. di Benguella, it is the best and most promising port; it has an anchorage mirror of 429 hectares, with depths from 6 to 36 meters, and a wooden cast, which can be approached by the largest ships; a narrow sandy tongue 5 km long. it shelters it from the waves of the Atlantic. Lobito, terminus of the Benguella railway, is the outlet of central Angola and, in the future, of the copper mines of Katanga. The port works are entrusted to an English company. Drinking water, excellent, is brought there by pipelines of the Benguella Railway Company, from the Catumbela River. Port Alexandre, about 46 km. south of Mossamedes, due to its advantageous topographical and hydrographic conditions, it is destined to replace it. Before the war it was the object of special attention from Germany. It has an excellent and vast well protected anchorage; it is not equipped with any port facilities. Bahia dos Tigres (English: Great Fish Bay) was coveted by the Germans to compensate for the deficiencies of their port of Swakopmund in German South West Africa. The sandy peninsula that forms the bay shelters a large natural deep harbor, but the eccentric situation, the lack of drinking water and the almost desert hinterland do not allow to found hopes for the development of this port. The other ports are open and difficult to access. The main shipping companies that touch the ports of Angola are: the Companhia Nacional de Navigação of Lisbon and the German Woermann Linie, which operate on a regular basis; they follow the Deutscher Africa Dienst; British and African Steam Navigation; African Steamship; Elder Dempster; Bull West African Line; The Union Castle Mail Steamship; Libera Triestina; the local Companhia Colonial de Navegação.

Regarding the density of the population and its distribution, in the absence of reliable data, we stick to the absolute population minimum, estimated at 4 million, which would give a general density of 3.2 residents per sq km. For the Congo district the density would be 20, for Loanda from 2 to 3, about 3 in Lunda, 6 in Benguella and 1 in Mossamedes and Huilla district. The main cities, and also most of the secondary ones, are located along the coast, usually in bays and at the mouth of some river, have a port or anchorage, low houses, Iberian colonial type, gardens and indigenous villages. Loanda, the most important, in 1911 had 17,500 residents, of which 3,000 indigenous; Benguella 1000 residents; Ambriz and Mossamedes 3000; Novo Redondo 1200. On the highlands the places inhabited by Europeans are trading posts, railway stations, agricultural centers, fortified posts: the main ones are on the Bihé plateau, such as Hambo, Silva Porto, Munhango. The indigenous villages are nothing more than a set of small and primitive huts protected by tufts of palm trees and zeribas.

For lack of propaganda and organization, Portuguese emigration has always been very limited to Angola. For foreigners in Portugal there are many restrictions, except for the British and Germans. The emigration (mostly temporary annual) of the indigenous people, organized by the Sociedade de Emigração for crops on the islands of São Tomé and Principe, is sensitive. To a lesser extent, the indigenous people emigrate to work in the copper mines of Katanga.

Angola Transport