Treatment and Lakes in Kazakhstan

Lakes in Kazakhstan

TREATMENT On the territory of Kazakhstan there are several balneological resorts, which operate on the basis of local mineral water sources. Sanatorium “Sosnovy Bor” is located 45 km from Kostanay. Local mineral waters have a sulfate-chloride-sodium composition, similar to the composition of the waters of the Pyatigorsky, Essentuki 17 and Karlovy Vary springs. With their help, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, cardiovascular system, musculoskeletal system, lung diseases, diseases of the ear,…

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Syria Economic Overview

Syria Economic Overview

Basic data Capital Damascus Population 20.38 million Language Arabic (Official) Religion Islam (87%, of which 74% Sunni Islam, 13% Shia Islam), Christianity (10%), Druze (3%) State system parliamentary republic Head of State Bashar al-Assad Head of government Hussain Arnús Currency name Syrian pound (SYP) Travel Time shift +1 hour (in summer +2 hours) Economy Nominal GDP (billion USD) 21.3 Economic growth (%) -2.2 Inflation (%) 66.1 Unemployment (%) 60.0 The…

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Cyprus Trade and Foreign Investment

Cyprus Trade

Subchapters: Business Relationships Foreign direct investment FTAs ​​and Treaties Development Cooperation Prospective fields of study (MOP) Business relations Trade relations with the EU 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 Exports from the EU (million EUR) 943.5 1,082.6 1,250.6 914.4 ON Imports into the EU (million EUR) 4,445.70 4,672.30 4,826.90 4,427.20 ON Balance with the EU (million EUR) 3,502.2 3,589.7 3,576.3 3,512.9 ON Source: European Commission Trade relations with the Czech Republic…

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Vietnam Trade and Foreign Investment

Vietnam Trade

Subchapters: Business Relationships Foreign direct investment FTAs ​​and Treaties Development Cooperation Prospective fields of study (MOP) Business relations Trade relations with the EU The EU is the fourth largest trading partner of Vietnam (behind China, Korea and the USA). Mutual trade between the EU and Vietnam shows a dynamic growth interrupted only in 2020 due to the negative effects of the Covid-19 pandemic. Imports from Vietnam to the EU consistently…

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Uzbekistan Trade and Foreign Investment

Uzbekistan Trade

Subchapters: Business Relationships Foreign direct investment FTAs ​​and Treaties Development Cooperation Prospective fields of study (MOP) Business relations Trade relations with the EU One of the most important trading partners of the UZ in 2021 was the European Union with a 15.2% share of imports (total volume of imports in 2021 – EUR 1 billion) and a 2.1% share of exports of the UZ (total volume of exports in 2021…

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United Arab Emirates Trade and Foreign Investment

United Arab Emirates Trade

Subchapters: Business Relationships Foreign direct investment FTAs ​​and Treaties Development Cooperation Prospective fields of study (MOP) Business relations Trade relations with the EU Relations with the EU are regulated by the General Agreement on Cooperation between the EU and the GCC from 1988, to which the Czech Republic also became a party after joining the EU. This is the basis of the Free Trade Agreement (FTA), which is still under…

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Turkmenistan Trade and Foreign Investment

Turkmenistan Trade

Subchapters: Business Relationships Foreign direct investment FTAs ​​and Treaties Development Cooperation Prospective fields of study (MOP) Business relations Trade relations with the EU Exports from EU countries to Turkmenistan almost halved in 2018, relatively low figures remained even during the pandemic period, but 2021 shows an increase to “pre-covid” values. Turkmenistan has a long-term negative trade balance with the EU, which means that exports from EU countries outweigh imports from…

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Turkey Trade and Foreign Investment

Turkey Trade

Subchapters: Business Relationships Foreign direct investment FTAs ​​and Treaties Development Cooperation Prospective fields of study (MOP) Business relations Trade relations with the EU Turkey was the EU’s 6th largest trading partner in 2021 (behind China, USA, Great Britain, Switzerland and Russia). The EU 27 still remains Turkey’s most important market (35.9% of total foreign trade). About 41.3% of Turkish exports (+33% compared to 2019) go to the EU. From the…

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Thailand Trade and Foreign Investment

Thailand Trade

Subchapters: Business Relationships Foreign direct investment FTAs ​​and Treaties Development Cooperation Prospective fields of study (MOP) Business relations Trade relations with the EU The EU as a whole (EU-27) is one of Thailand’s important trading partners. Thailand’s foreign trade balance with the EU has been in surplus for a long time (import of food, electronics, cars to the EU). The Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between the EU and Thailand is…

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Tajikistan Trade and Foreign Investment

Tajikistan Trade

Subchapters: Business Relationships Foreign direct investment FTAs ​​and Treaties Development Cooperation Prospective fields of study (MOP) Business relations Trade relations with the EU Tajikistan is among the favored countries within the European GSP program and uses the preferences and concessions provided by the EU. The share of EU countries in the total export of TJ is 5%, in the import – 7%. Among the EU member states, Tajikistan primarily trades…

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Taiwan Trade and Foreign Investment

Taiwan Trade

Subchapters: Business Relationships Foreign direct investment FTAs ​​and Treaties Development Cooperation Prospective fields of study (MOP) Business relations Trade relations with the EU Trade between the EU and Taiwan has recently been on the rise. Taiwan’s export-oriented economy and lower exports from EU countries (e.g. in agriculture) leave a chronic trade deficit. The EU is Taiwan’s 4th largest trading partner after China, the USA and Japan. Within the EU, Germany…

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Syria Trade Relations with the EU

Syria Trade

Subchapters: Business Relationships FTAs ​​and Treaties Development Cooperation Prospective fields of study (MOP) Business relations Trade relations with the EU In connection with the introduction of the EU sanctions regime, the volume of bilateral trade has significantly decreased in recent years. Nevertheless, the EU is Syria’s largest trading partner, accounting for 8.7% of the country’s total international trade in goods in 2020. In contrast, Syria is the EU’s 136th trading…

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Sri Lanka Trade and Foreign Investment

Sri Lanka Trade

Subchapters: Business Relationships Foreign direct investment FTAs ​​and Treaties Development Cooperation Prospective fields of study (MOP) Business relations Trade relations with the EU The EU is Sri Lanka’s largest export market with a positive trade balance of more than EUR billion. Sri Lanka particularly benefits from the GSP+ preferential system, which allows duty-free access for nearly 6,000 categories of export products, which is 66% of EU tariff items. GSP+ is…

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South Korea Trade and Foreign Investment

South Korea Trade

Subchapters: Business Relationships Foreign direct investment FTAs ​​and Treaties Development Cooperation Prospective fields of study (MOP) Business relations Trade relations with the EU 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 Exports from the EU (million EUR) 43.5 43.7 43.4 45.3 51.9 Imports into the EU (million EUR) 44.0 46.0 47.4 44.1 55.4 Balance with the EU (million EUR) -0.5 -2.3 -4.1 1.2 -3.5 Source: European Commission, data in the table are rounded…

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Singapore Trade and Foreign Investment

Singapore Trade

Subchapters: Business Relationships Foreign direct investment FTAs ​​and Treaties Development Cooperation Prospective fields of study (MOP) Business relations Trade relations with the EU Singapore is the EU’s 16th largest trading partner in goods and the EU’s 2nd largest ASEAN trading partner in 2021. The EU has a large positive trade balance in goods and services with Singapore, as the small island nation is generally dependent on imports food, basic materials,…

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Saudi Arabia Trade and Foreign Investment

Saudi Arabia Trade

Subchapters: Business Relationships Foreign direct investment FTAs ​​and Treaties Development Cooperation Prospective fields of study (MOP) Business relations Trade relations with the EU Overall, the EU is Saudi Arabia’s second largest trading partner (13.7% of total turnover) after China, and Saudi Arabia is the EU’s 17th largest trading partner (1.1%). Exports from the EU have remained at an approximately similar value since 2016. Conversely, imports into the EU oscillate along…

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Russia Trade Relations with the EU

Russia Trade

Subchapters: Business Relationships FTAs ​​and Treaties Development Cooperation Prospective fields of study (MOP) Business relations Trade relations with the EU The European Union as a whole is stably the main trading partner of the Russian Federation. Until the end of the last decade, Germany was the main trading partner between the individual countries. But in the course of the second decade of the 21st century, Russia, for both political and…

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Qatar Trade Relations with the EU

Qatar Trade

Subchapters: Business Relationships FTAs ​​and Treaties Development Cooperation Prospective fields of study (MOP) Business relations Trade relations with the EU Qatar is extremely dependent on foreign trade. Imports cover most of the country’s needs. The main trading partners are Japan, Singapore, China, India, Brazil; from the EU then Great Britain, Germany, Belgium, Spain, Italy. Trade exchange with the EU (million EUR) 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 Exports from the EU…

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Philippines Trade and Foreign Investment

Philippines Trade

Subchapters: Business Relationships Foreign direct investment FTAs ​​and Treaties Development Cooperation Prospective fields of study (MOP) Business relations Trade relations with the EU EU-Philippines trade showed improvement in 2021, surpassing the overall level of trade compared to pre-pandemic bilateral trade performance. According to Eurostat, total EU-PH trade grew by 19% year-on-year in 2021. This reflects improved bilateral trade flows as economies recover from the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.…

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Palestine Trade and Foreign Investment

Palestine Trade

Subchapters: Business Relationships Foreign direct investment FTAs ​​and Treaties Development Cooperation Prospective fields of study (MOP) Business relations Trade relations with the EU 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 Exports from the EU (million EUR) 255 235.2 262.5 218 355.3 Imports into the EU (million EUR) 12.3 13.8 21.1 25.7 29.2 Balance with the EU (million EUR) -242.7 -221.3 -241.4 -192.3 -326.1 Source: European Commission The EU as a whole is…

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Pakistan Trade and Foreign Investment

Pakistan Trade

Subchapters: Business Relationships Foreign direct investment FTAs ​​and Treaties Development Cooperation Prospective fields of study (MOP) Business relations Trade relations with the EU The EU is Pakistan’s second most important trading partner, accounting for 14.3% of total trade in 2021. The European Single Market is the final destination of 28% of Pakistan’s total exports, mainly textile products (82% of exports to the EU). The high growth in Pakistan’s exports since…

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Oman Trade Relations with the EU

Oman Trade

Subchapters: Business Relationships FTAs ​​and Treaties Development Cooperation Prospective fields of study (MOP) Business relations For the Czech Republic, Oman represents a small market of million inhabitants – very open to international trade and therefore relatively competitive – with high purchasing power, good payment ethics and demand for the most modern goods and sophisticated technologies. The market for our goods is mainly accessible by air and sea transport. OM currently…

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North Korea Trade and Foreign Investment

North Korea Trade

In recent years, the DPRK’s foreign trade has been reoriented mainly to trade with the PRC, which, however, is significantly unbalanced in terms of quality, and within the leadership of the DPRK, this one-sided dependence probably has its opponents. However, the DPRK is unable to diversify its trade. In 2019, China’s share of the DPRK’s ZO was approximately 95%. Despite partial successes in the export of products with a higher…

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Nepal Trade and Foreign Investment

Nepal Trade

Subchapters: Business Relationships Foreign direct investment FTAs ​​and Treaties Development Cooperation Prospective fields of study (MOP) Business relations Trade relations with the EU Nepal is classified as a Least Developed Country (LDC) by the UN and falls under the “Everything But Arms” preferential regime in relation to the EU. The trade balance with the EU is negative and amounted to EUR 125 million for 2021. The EU mainly imports textiles…

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Myanmar Trade and Foreign Investment

Myanmar Trade

Subchapters: Business Relationships Foreign direct investment FTAs ​​and Treaties Development Cooperation Prospective fields of study (MOP) Business relations Trade relations with the EU The EU is Myanmar’s third most important trading partner (after China and Thailand). However, it can be expected that the importance of the EU for Myanmar’s trade relations will tend to decline. The reason is mainly the reduced interest in Myanmar goods on the part of European…

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Mongolia Trade and Foreign Investment

Mongolia Trade

Subchapters: Business Relationships Foreign direct investment FTAs ​​and Treaties Development Cooperation Prospective fields of study (MOP) Business relations Trade relations with the EU Mongolia concluded a Partnership and Cooperation Agreement with the EU in 2017. Using the GSP+ mechanisms, it can export up to 6,200 products duty-free to the EU. Mongolia’s foreign trade turnover with the EU in 2021 reached EUR 609.8 million. The total value of imports was EUR…

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Maldives Trade and Foreign Investment

Maldives Trade

Subchapters: Business Relationships Foreign direct investment FTAs ​​and Treaties Development Cooperation Prospective fields of study (MOP) Business relations Trade relations with the EU The EU is the largest trading partner of the Maldives. The volume of trade exchange is not high. In 2021, it amounted to 22 million. EUR. The international trade balance is positive. The main export items were agricultural products and machinery. The Maldives has repeatedly called on…

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Malaysia Trade and Foreign Investment

Malaysia Trade

Subchapters: Business Relationships Foreign direct investment FTAs ​​and Treaties Development Cooperation Prospective fields of study (MOP) Business relations Trade relations with the EU The European Union has long been Malaysia’s third largest trading partner (after China and Singapore) and is perceived as an important trading partner in the country. Bilateral trade between the EU and Malaysia is dominated by industrial products. The EU mainly imports machinery and equipment and mainly…

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Macau, China Trade and Foreign Investment

Macau, China Trade

Subchapters: Business Relationships Foreign direct investment FTAs ​​and Treaties Development Cooperation Prospective fields of study (MOP) Business relations Trade relations with the EU According to data for 2021, goods with a total value of EUR 1,211.50 were imported from the EU to Macao. The volume of goods imported from Macao is very negligible. The year 2021 confirms an increase in interest in European luxury goods (leather goods, clothing, watches and…

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Lebanon Trade and Foreign Investment

Lebanon Trade

Subchapters: Business Relationships Foreign direct investment FTAs ​​and Treaties Development Cooperation Prospective fields of study (MOP) Business relations Lebanon’s trade balance is negative, the country imports more than 80% of all products. The total volume of imports reached USD 1 billion and exports USD billion in 2021. Allcountrylist: Overview of major industries in Lebanon, including mining, construction, transportation, tourism, and foreign trade. Trade relations with the EU Lebanon is the…

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