Swiss Literature Overview

Swiss Literature Overview

Important works of German-language literature in Switzerland (selection) From the Middle Ages to the 18th century Easter play by Muri (1240–60) Manessian manuscript (in Zurich in the first half of the 14th century a collection of all Middle High German minnesang) H. Wittenwiler: »The Ring« (around 1410, satirical epic) “The White Book of Sarnen” (around 1470, chronicle) “Old Tellenlied” (around 1477) »Urner Tellenspiel« (1512) Bible translation under the direction of…

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Russia Foreign and Security Policy under Yeltsin

Russia Foreign and Security Policy under Yeltsin

In terms of foreign policy, Russia appeared with the claim of a regulatory power in the “near abroad” and also revealed great power political ambitions (based on the earlier world power role of the USSR). In December 1991, the members of the CIS gave Russia the seat of the former Soviet Union in the UN and its Security Council. Russia’s attempt to establish itself as a leader in the CIS…

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Swiss Literature – Biedermeier and Realism

Swiss Literature - Biedermeier and Realism

First half of the 19th century: Biedermeier and realism As a »popular enlightenment«, the late Enlightenment worked well into the 19th century in Switzerland. a. at Pestalozzi’s plant. It influenced i.a. considerably H. Zschokke educational (“people’s education is the People’s Liberation,” 1836) and literary work (story “The Gold-maker village,” 1817) and is also in J. Gotthelf visible. The “Swiss Romanticism” remained episodic. It can be seen in folk songs as…

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Andorra State Overview

Andorra State Overview

According to topschoolsintheusa, Andorra is a country in southern Europe with an area of 468 km 2, located in the Pyrenees between Spain and France, with an average altitude of 1 996 meters above sea level. It is constituted as a social and democratic state of law, whose political regime is the parliamentary principality and has as heads of state the Bishop of Urgel, currently Joan Enric Vives Sicília, and the President of the French Republic, currently Francois Hollande. The…

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United Kingdom Literature: Neoclassicism and Romance

United Kingdom Literature

CULTURE: LITERATURE. NEOCLASSICISM The sense of frustration and moral emptiness that one grasps is imported from the crisis that marked the passage from the sixteenth to the seventeenth century and which found complete and valid poetic expression in the work of J. Donne (1572-1631). Witness and participant of all this is W. Shakespeare (1564-1616), who in the height of his inspiration, in the breadth of his interests and in the…

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France Culture

Describing what France’s contribution to the evolution of the history of culture and art in all its expressions has been over the centuries seems like a huge purpose, so great is the number of French works in the fields of literature and painting., scientific and philosophical, political and existential thought, architecture, theater and cinema, which have become absolute reference points for world art. As far as literature is concerned, works…

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Portugal Brief History

Portugal Brief History

Some countries you like to visit, others you take to heart. Portugal is a country that you are happy to take to heart. It has a lot to offer in terms of visits to historically interesting places, beautiful nature, friendly people and a wonderful climate. Portugal is an underrated destination, with so much more to offer than swimming on the Algarve coast. Having previously visited Madeira and the Azores, both…

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Working and Living in Portugal

Working and Living in Portugal

Immigration, permanent residence, residence permit Anyone who is a citizen of a member state of the EU or Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway or Switzerland and who intends to stay in Portugal for more than 3 months must register with the municipal administration (Câmara Municipal) of the respective residential district in which they live. A certificate of registration (Certificado de Registo) is issued, which confirms the residence permit. After five years, you…

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Facts of Russia

Facts of Russia

Read more about currency, transport, price levels and more in connection with your trip to Russia. Language: Russian Capital: Moscow Population: 142 million Religion: Russian Orthodox Currency: Ruble Surface: 17,075,000 km2 Worth knowing Time difference Russia is on the surface the world’s largest country and therefore there are also many time zones. In 2014, summer time was abolished and Russia is now permanently in winter time. Moscow and St. Petersburg…

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Romania Human Geography

Romania Country and People

To its geographical position, between Central Europe and the Black Sea, Romania owes the fact that it has hosted important communication routes since ancient times, oriented along lines aimed at the mouth of the Danube, which crossed the Romanian territory, connecting it to neighboring countries. Romania was inhabited since the Upper Paleolithic, and there are numerous testimonies of flourishing cultures of Neolithic derivation; the Dacians would have originated from the…

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England Landmarks

England Landmarks

England is a country with an impressive culture and has a large number of attractions to offer its visitors. So you should definitely not miss the city of London. It is the capital of England and has many different attractions to offer, such as: B. historical monuments, a huge selection of restaurants, tourist attractions, art and culture. Oxford and Cambridge are known to most of the people around the world,…

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Independent Slovenia

Independent Slovenia

In December 1991 the government alliance “Demos” broke up due to internal tensions. A government formed in May 1992 under Prime Minister Janez Drnovšek (* 1950; LDS) was replaced by a coalition government of the most important parties after the parliamentary and presidential elections on December 6, 1992 (“historic compromise” of January 1993); Drnovšek stayed in office. Due to the economic growth that began in 1994, Slovenia was able to…

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Lithuania History Timeline

Lithuania History Timeline

According to computergees, the Republic of Lithuania is a country in northern Europe, the southernmost of the three Baltic countries. The country lies along the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea and borders Latvia to the north, Belarus to the east and southeast and Poland and the Russian exclave of Kaliningrad Oblast to the southwest. Across the Baltic Sea are Sweden and Denmark. The country has a population of 2.986…

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Finland Arts

Finland Arts

Starting from the second half of the century. XII, with the Swedish conquest and Christianization, the first Romanesque churches were built in Finland, first in wood, then, from the beginning of the century. XIII, in stone. At the end of the century. XIII the Gothic style spread, according to the models of Swedish and North German architecture. From this period are the church of St. Henry (the apostle of Finland)…

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Christianity

Christianity

Christianity, term for the entirety of the followers of the “Christian” faith going back to Jesus Christ as well as for this faith itself.  The term “Christianity” (Greek: christianismós) appears for the first time in a letter from the Syrian bishop Ignatius of Antioch . According to transporthint, the Christianity is one of the World religions. The term Christianity denotes, on the one hand, the totality of adherents of the…

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Monaco Travel Guide

Monaco Travel Guide

The Principality of Monaco is located in Southern Europe on the French Riviera near the Italian border. It is dated to the south Mediterranean Sea. The Monaco enclave is located in the French department of Alpes-Maritimes. The oldest still ruling European Principality is divided into districts. Monaco-Ville is located on the rocky promontory. The port area is La Condaiminne. Monte Carlo is the cultural center of Monaco. From the heights…

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France Geography

France Geography

Area: 551,500 km² (of which land: 549,970 km², water area 1,530 km²). These values ​​refer to metropolitan France, excluding French Guyana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Reunion and Mayotte. Population: 65.3 million (2011 estimate, CIA) Population density: 118 residents per km² Population growth: 0.5% per year (2011, CIA) Capital city: Paris (2.18 million residents in the Unité urbaine, 2006) Highest point: Mont Blanc, 4,807 m (highest point in Europe) Lowest point: Delta of…

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Russia Law and Education

Russia Law and Education

Law State jurisdiction is divided into constitutional, arbitrage (also known as commercial or economic jurisdiction) and ordinary jurisdiction. In recent years, private arbitration has also become more and more important (Law on Arbitration Courts of 2002). The judicial system is set out in the Constitution and the Courts Constitution Act 1996. The courts, with the exception of the constitutional courts of the federal subjects, are federal courts; even the justices…

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Norway Literature in 20th Century

Norway Literature

The often heterogeneous, exact classification often eluded cultural and literary currents of the 19th century developed further apart in the 20th century, with contrasts often appearing in the individual poet personalities. In K. Hamsun , the most important epic, seemed a of W. F. Nietzsche influenced vitalism with an anti-civilizing and anti-democratic tendency, which later culminated in a fatal sympathy for National Socialist ideas and alienated the poet from the…

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The German Trade Fair Cities

The German Trade Fair Cities

In no other country in the world are there as many trade fair cities as in Germany. The oldest German trade fair city is Frankfurt am Main, for which an annual autumn fair is attested as early as the 12th century. In 1240, Emperor Friedrich II issued a trade fair privilege for the city, which included the personal protection of merchants: »We command that no one should bother or hinder…

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Polish Philosophy

Polish Philosophy

Polish philosophy, collective term for the philosophical theories and systems that began in the 13th century. Many thinkers received their training at Italian universities (in the 15th century also in Prague and Vienna); they wrote their works in Latin. Up to the 18th century the scholasticism of the influential Jesuit order was formative. In the 19th century, an Aristotelian-Stoic Renaissance philosophy and the Reformation movement of the Polish Brothers (Socinians)…

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Polish Music

Polish Music

Polish music, term for the music of the Polish language and cultural area. The oldest musical tradition can be found in the folk song, which is still alive today and whose peculiarities include five-step scales (pentatonic), church keys, asymmetrical rhythms and short melodic formations. There is evidence of the dance song as early as 1100, which has remained the predominant song genre until modern times. Folk dances such as polonaise,…

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Polish Literature Part IV

Polish Literature 4

After 1989 – between continuity and change The separation of Poland from the Soviet sphere of influence and the transition to democracy and a market economy in 1989 brought Polish literature, similar to the literatures of other states of the former Eastern Bloc, the final elimination of censorship and political and ideological constraints. With the achievement of full sovereignty in Poland, according to aristmarketing, a cultural practice that had existed…

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Polish Literature Part III

Polish Literature 2 3

Interwar period (1918-39) After the establishment of statehood, ideological and artistic contradictions emerged more clearly in literary groups and were more sharply expressed in literature, with aesthetic issues predominating. In addition to the older poets B. Leśmian and L. Staff, new groups of poets formed around magazines: for example »Skamander« (1920 ff.), Who advocated everyday language and content in poetry and united poets such as J. Tuwim and A. Słonimski,…

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Polish Literature Part II

Polish Literature 2

At the same time sensitive works (ballads, idylls, novels) appeared. Brodziński introduced the Polish public to Romanticism through his treatise “O klasyczności i romantyczności” (1818). The interest in history, folklore and feeling favored the emergence of romanticism, which was brought about by »Ballady i romanse« (1822; German »Balladen und Romanzen«) as well as »Grażyna« (1823; German) and »Dziady« (parts 2 and 4, 1823; German “Die Totenfeier”) by A. Mickiewicz had…

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Polish Literature Part I

Polish Literature 1

Polish literature, collective name for the earliest evidence written in Latin from the 11th century. Polish language monuments are only known from the 14th century. Polish literature is divided into two main currents: the Old Polish Epoch (12th to mid-18th centuries), which includes the Middle Ages, Renaissance and Baroque, and the more recent Polish literature, which begins with the Enlightenment. Middle Ages (11th – 15th centuries) According to commit4fitness, Christianization…

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Polish Modern Arts

Polish Modern Arts

19th Century In architecture (“Great Theater” in Warsaw), historicism tied in with classicist models, and since around 1830 also with neo-Gothic. A national development became more apparent in painting than in architecture. The main master of Romanticism was P. Michałowski with horse, battle and genre scenes as well as portraits in a loose, sketchy style. J. Matejko’s monumental historical pictures (“Rejtan”, 1866, “Battle of Grunewald”, 1878; both Warsaw, Muzeum Narodowe)…

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Polish Arts

Polish Arts

Polish art, the name for the independent style variants that developed for the first time in the 14th century and which took on an emphatically national character around 1800. Since the beginning in the 10th century, according to computergees, the art of Poland has been under changing influences from Central Europe and Italy. Romanesque The first medieval buildings are round chapels like those of Saints Felix and Adaukt (end of…

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Polish History

Polish History

Polish history becomes tangible in the national sense after Christianization in 966/967 under the Piast dynasty. Poland has a common prehistory with Central and Eastern Europe. Around 1500 Poland reached almost as far as the Black Sea and united many peoples under one ruler. In the 18th century it was divided among the neighboring great powers. After World War II and decades under a communist regime, Poland experienced a new…

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The Kingdom of Poland (1320–1795) Part II

The Kingdom of Poland 2

Among the last Jagiellonians Zygmunt I. Stary (Sigismund I, the Old, 1506–48) and Zygmunt (Sigismund) II. August (1548–72) Poland experienced its »golden age« in the area of ​​constitutional and political as well as literary and artistic matters. The urban population was captured early by the Lutheran Reformation, parts of the nobility after 1540 by the Calvinist Reformation. After the Union of Brest in 1595/96, many Orthodox submitted to the Pope’s…

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