Starting from the second half of the century. XII, with the Swedish conquest and Christianization, the first Romanesque churches were built in Finland, first in wood, then, from the beginning of the century. XIII, in stone. At the end of the century. XIII the Gothic style spread, according to the models of Swedish and North German architecture. From this period are the church of St. Henry (the apostle of Finland) in Nousiainen (ca. 1286-90), with two naves and two apses, and the Turku Cathedral, built largely of brick, with three naves of equal height (ca. 1286-92). In Viipuri (Vyborg), Turku, Hämeenlinna, Romanesque castles were built at the end of the 13th century consisting of a surrounding wall with towers and an internal house building. In the sec. XIV and XV the Gothic style reached its maximum diffusion. The churches, at first in stone with wooden ceilings, later had cross and star vaults of brick (as well as the gables of the facades). We remember the church of S. Croce in Hattula (ca. 1320-50), all made of bricks and those of Töfsala, Parainen, Lohja, Isokyrö, Hollola, Ulvila, Korppoo; the convents of Rauma and Naantali. In pure German Gothic style it is the completion of the Hämeenlinna castle (mid-14th century). The churches, especially from the end of the century. XV, were decorated with frescoes of both Baltic influence (church of Ingå) and Swedish and adorned with wooden statues of local production and sculptures imported from Sweden, from Lübeck, from Hamburg and later also from Antwerp. With the Reformation sacred art went through a period of stagnation. Instead, secular building activity continued (modernization of the Turku castle in Renaissance style) and city fortifications were built. More intense construction activity in the century. XVII, both in the field of civil and religious architecture. According to late Renaissance criteria they were elaborated in the century. XVII the plans of fifteen new cities.
According to globalsciencellc, the seventeenth century also saw the rebirth of popular sacred painting (churches of Tornio, Saloinen, Pyhämaa). In the sec. XVIII, especially in the castles, the French style prevailed with mansard roofs and classical forms (castles made by C. Hårleman, 1700-83), while the religious architecture was characterized by simple wooden parish churches erected by the so-called “popular masters”, with polychrome bell towers (Keuruy, 1756; Petäjävesi, 1763; Lappee, 1792). At the end of the century. XVIII, in the Gustavian period, it spread religious architecture was characterized by simple wooden parish churches erected by the so-called “popular masters”, with polychrome bell towers (Keuruy, 1756; Petäjävesi, 1763; Lappee, 1792). At the end of the century. XVIII, in the Gustavian period, it spread religious architecture was characterized by simple wooden parish churches erected by the so-called “popular masters”, with polychrome bell towers (Keuruy, 1756; Petäjävesi, 1763; Lappee, 1792). At the end of the century. XVIII, in the Gustavian period, it spread Neoclassical style according to French models (round church of Hämeenlinna, by the French architect J.-L. Desprez, 1795-98; palace of the Court of Appeal of Vaasa, 1780-87) and Swedish (Turku academy, by C. Ch. Gjörvell, 1802-16). With the annexation by Russia, the Swedish and French influence was replaced by the Russian one. The capital passed from Turku to Helsinki (1812), where the German architect CL Engel (master plan of the university city, library, government building and numerous churches) was active since 1814, linked to the “empire” taste of Petersburg. After the eclectic phase (1840-90) a national current inspired by medieval architecture and Art Nouveau emerged in Finland (L. Sonck, A. Lindgren, E. Saarinen in his first buildings), then an early functionalism, whose maximum representative was Saarinen (Helsinki station, 1906-14). After Saarinen’s transfer to the United States (1923), the classical trend represented by JS Sirén (Parliament of Helsinki, 1925-31) and the functional trend, which he found in Erik Bryggman (1891-1956) and in Alvar Aalto (sanatorium di Paimio, 1928-33; Viipuri library, 1927-35) interpreters of European stature. To the next generation belong numerous architects and urban planners such as V. Rewell, J. Järvi, A. Blomstedt, A. Ervi. In the field of painting, after the neoclassicism of the early nineteenth century a landscape school was established, influenced by the Düsseldorf Academy (W. Holmberg).
Around 1880 Finnish artists began to train in Paris, affected by impressionism and post – impressionism (A. Edelfelt). With the beginning of the century. XX the figurative arts have known a period of flourishing, finding points of reference with the symbolism and the European avant-gardes. An eminent personality is that of Akseli Gallén-Kallela, member of the “ Die Brücke ” movement and excellent graphic designer. Other artists have worked in the field of expressionism, surrealism, of abstract art (Väinö Aaltonen). Sculpture gained importance above all with W. Runeberg and J. Takanen. The level of industrial art is particularly high, especially after 1930 and after the Second World War. In Finland a place among the most important artistic expressions must be reserved for design, of which the Finns are considered masters at an international level and which ranges from the design of furnishing and interior objects, to creations in glass, ceramics and wood, to graphics it’s trendy.