Iranian art, the art of Iran, sometimes crossing today’s borders. According to itypeauto, Iranian art finds its earliest expression in painted ceramics. Millennium BC Occurred and was partly produced until over the middle of the 2nd millennium. In addition, some early wall paintings and female clay figurines have been preserved. The sites are in north-east Iran and Central Asia (Tepe Hissar; Djejtun Tepe, Daschlydji Tepe), in the west in the vicinity of today’s Kermanshah, among others. Tepe Gijan, in the northwest on Lake Urmia, among others. Janik Tepe, Hasanlu, Haddj Firus, in the highlands (Tepe Sialk, Tell-e Bakun, Tell-e Gap) and in the southwest (Tepe Djafarabad, Susa).
The Elamite culture took a special development in southwestern Iran, which developed in mutual fertilization with Mesopotamia in the lowlands of Khusistan and at times had a stimulating effect on Tepe Sialk. In south-east Iran, on the trade route from Elam and Mesopotamia to India, Tepe Jahja has flourished since the middle of the 5th millennium, and its own commodity was stone bowls. Around 3000 BC For the first time in the northeast, monochrome goods with new shapes appeared; the most impressive find are statuettes of a goddess made of black clay with outstretched arms and arm, neck and head decorations (Turang Tepe, Gorgantal). Characteristics consistent with this ceramic are shown by the black-gray ceramic, which spread from the northeast in Iran at the beginning of the 2nd millennium.
After the middle of the 2nd millennium there were significant shifts in western Iran. The older group of Luristan bronzes emerged, and in some cases new branches developed, e.g. B. Gandj Tepe northwest of Tehran near the village of Khorvin (Churvin) and on the old hill of Tepe Sialk, which was repopulated (necropolis A). The black-gray ceramic is characteristic of the late 2nd millennium. A little later a new wave of immigrants apparently reached Tepe Sialk and others. Branches. In Tepe Sialk a terrace was built for the ruler’s palace, megalithic graves were built in necropolis B (10th – 9th centuries), the covering of which with ceramic plates above the mound shows the shape of a gable roof. In the ceramics, the jug appeared in the shape of a bird with a long, horizontal beak and goiter, it is densely painted with geometric motifs, as well as depictions of animals and humans. Related in shape are the (black-gray) ceramics and jewelry from Khorvin from the 9th and 8th centuries, where a metal mirror with a handle in the form of a human figure can be found for the first time, as well as the finds from Hasanlu at the time of the Manneans, where gold jewelry and cult goblets made of precious metals were found next to the gray-black libation vessels,
In some respects, the material culture of the early 1st millennium forms the root of the subsequent art of the Medes and Persians. The Luristan bronzes play a special role, their later group probably also in the 9th and 8th centuries BC. BC originated. The inventory of monuments of medical art is very small, one tries to supplement it with attributions. The Persian dynasty of the Achaemenids created an art geared towards the court (the excavated and partially reconstructed ruins of Persepolis are best preserved). She merged influences from different cultures of the Middle East that she ruled (Achaemenid art); This is how the Medes and Persians got to know the construction of terraces from Cyclopean stones in Urartu. After conquering by Alexander the Great, the Seleucids patronized Hellenistic art. The Parthians brought new forms of construction; In visual art, the transition from profile to frontal representation fundamentally changed the form of expression. The Sassanid art is again a rich court art with monumental palace buildings and magnificent handicrafts that radiated far. The Islamic conquerors also initially took over a lot of it, as the sculptures and floor paintings of the Umayyad castles show (around 700 AD). Under the dynasties of the Samanids, Ghasnavids, Seljuks, Ilkhane, Timurids and Safavids, an art developed within the Islamic realm that went its own way, especially in ceramics, textile art, carpet weaving, miniature painting and architecture (Islamic art).
Middle Persian language and literature
Middle Persian language and literature. The Middle Persian language (Iranian languages), the language of the Pars (Fars) province, was established from the 3rd century BC. Spoken until the 9th century AD. From the 3rd century AD onwards, it increasingly served as the official and lingua franca of the Sassanid Empire. a. recorded in Pehlewischrift. In addition to coin legends, ostracas and papyri, sources include inscriptions from the early Sassanid period. In addition, there is an extensive Zoroastrian literature from the post-Sassanid period (including especially the theological encyclopedias of the Zoroastrian religion, thinking and Bundahishn). The other Middle Persian literature also served v. a. commenting on the Avesta and the Zoroastrian ritual as well as Zoroastrian ethics and dogmatics. In addition, there is a fragmentary psalm translation in Pehlewis script and numerous Manichaean fragments in their own written form of Syrian origin. Apart from Karnamag-e Ardaschir, a novel about the founder of the Sassanid dynasty Ardaschir I, there are hardly any profane works.
Persian language, an Iranian language, is the official language of New Persian in Iran (called Farsi there) and (next to Pashto) in Afghanistan (called Dari there).
The oldest form of the Persian language is Old Persian, the language of the Achaemenids’ inscriptions, which has been handed down in cuneiform. Middle Persian (Middle Persian language and literature) was the official language and lingua franca of the Sassanids. As a cultural language, the (New) Persian language is not only the carrier of a rich Persian literature, but has also strongly influenced the neighboring languages Turkish and Urdu at different times. New Persian is written with the extended Arabic script. It has a greatly simplified morphology (no gender and case endings, few verbal forms) and a rich syntax.