Kenya – national flag
Kenya – National Flag, At independence in 1963 Kenya adopted a flag based on the KANU flag of the liberation organization. In the color symbol of the flag, the black color stands for the people, the red shows that the blood of an African is the same color as that of a European, and the green represents the country. The white stripes added in 1963 stand for peace and unity. The tribal shield and the spear from the Masai people symbolize the defense of the freedom gained.
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Kenya – history
According to a2zgov, the present Kenya was early a central immigration area for, among other things. Bantu people, Nilots, Nilohamites and Coastal Hits. Before 1800-h. the interior of the country was unknown to the outside world, while the coastal country had for centuries been known by Arab traders. The most important commodities on the caravan route between Lake Victoria and Mombasa were slaves and ivory. In the mid-1700’s. immigrated Masai from the north to central Kenya; from the mid-1800’s. Arab and Swahili-speaking people took over the trade routes through Kenya and the trade was controlled by the Sultan of Zanzibar.
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In the early 1800’s. German missionaries came to Kenya, but in 1888 the British East Africa Company acquired territories in the country. In 1895 Kenya was declared a British protectorate primarily to secure the British the way to Uganda. To this end, the construction of a railway between Mombasa and Uganda began.
From 1897, European settlers were granted the right to unused land in Kenya, and in 1902 the British urged Europeans to settle on Africans’ land in the fertile central highlands. From 1914, Africans began an armed resistance to settlements and colonial rule. In 1920 Kenya became the British crown colony and the same year organized political activity took place. The Kikuyu Central Association was formed, and in 1929 Jomo Kenyatta, himself kikuyu, traveled to Britain to defend the rights of Africans, but because of the settlers’ influence on the colonial administration, the journey was unsuccessful.
World War II benefited the settlers in Kenya economically, while many Africans were forced out into less fertile agricultural areas and many had to go to the cities or European-owned plantations to find work. The growing discontent led to armed guerrilla movements in the 1950’s. In 1952 the state of emergency was introduced, and for the next four years the colonial power was at war with Kikuyu in particular, which was the main force in the Mau Mau movement. During the unrest, approximately 13,000 Africans killed while only 143 whites perished. The state of emergency was first abolished in 1960.
In 1957, for the first time, Africans were given the opportunity to elect representatives to the legislative assembly. In 1960, the party formed the Kenya African National Union, KANU. Jomo Kenyatta became the leader of KANU, which won the 1961 election and then formed a coalition with the smaller Kenya African Democratic Union, KADU. At the 1963 regional elections, KANU achieved an overwhelming electoral victory, and that same year Kenyatta became prime minister; he declared Kenya independent on 12.12.1963. In 1964, Kenya was declared a republic. KADU had then been swallowed up by KANU, and Kenya was in fact a one-party state. Economically, the country achieved some development, but the government’s Western policy did not allow criticism. A British insurgency attempt in 1964 was turned down.
In the mid-1960’s, the divide in KANU became evident. In 1966, Vice President Oginga Odinga formed his own party, Kenya People’s Union, KPU, which was banned in 1969. That same year, Finance and Planning Minister Tom Mboya was assassinated.
In 1978, Daniel arap Moi of the Kalenjin tribe became president, but the hope of a liberal political climate was not fulfilled. A coup attempt in 1982 was quickly defeated by the army. Comprehensive arrests followed, the coup men were sentenced to death, but after an amnesty in 1983, most arrests were released and the death sentences reversed.
From 1986, the Mwakenya movement became a central player in Kenyan politics. The movement gathered some opposition and posed a serious threat to Moi. In 1991, six opposition leaders, including the Odinga Forum for the Restoration of Democracy, formed the FORD, which was immediately banned but continued to operate.
The internal pressure and international criticism of the regime made Moi accept a multi-party system, and in 1992 presidential and parliamentary elections were held with the participation of several parties and candidates. Moi was re-elected president for a five-year term, and KANU achieved 100 of the 188 seats in the House. The opposition accused the government of electoral fraud. A worsening of the human rights situation and the ongoing corruption in Kenya caused a number of donor countries, including Denmark, in the 1990’s to suspend or limit aid cooperation.
In 1997, Arap Moi regained the presidential post, and KANU regained the majority in parliament. In 2001, the country was hit by drought, which meant a huge shortage of food. In several areas, there were also fighting between cattle farmers and farmers about access to scarce water resources. The financial problems also led to increased crime and urban unrest. In 2002, KANU merged with the second largest opposition party (National Development Party) to increase the chances of winning the election in late 2002. Arap Moi failed to stand for re-election, and KANU’s new presidential candidate, Uhuru Kenyatta, son of Jomo Kenyatta, received only 31 % of the vote in the election. The winner was the leader of the National Rainbow Coalition, NACR, Mwai Kibaki, who got 62% of the vote.
Kibaki, which belongs to Kenya’s largest ethnic group, kikuyu, for elections to fight corruption, but already after a short time the new government was also accused of widespread corruption; in 2006, this resulted in the resignation of three ministers and the director of the National Bank of Kenya. At the same time, problems arose in the NACR, which initially consisted of several parties, including Liberal Democratic Party, LDP, and FORD. There was disagreement over the drafting of a new constitution in which the LDP worked for a reduction of the president’s power and the establishment of a prime ministerial post. Kibaki enforced a proposal that maintained the president’s power and sent it to the referendum in November. 2005, when it was voted down. In the context of the constitutional crisis, the LDP stepped out of the NACR and, together with KANU, formed The Orange Democratic Movement, ODM.
In December 2007, parliamentary and presidential elections were held in which Kibaki was declared victorious. This result was rejected by opposition leader Raila Odinga (b. 1945), who belongs to the Luo ethnic group, and sparked fierce and bloody protests in the country as well as international criticism. However, Raila Odinga was appointed prime minister in 2008 to put a damper on the unrest. Uhuru Kenyatta became Deputy Prime Minister and then Finance Minister; however, he has been charged with complicity in the unrest at the International Criminal Court. At the March 2013 presidential election, Kenyatta, who had formed a new party, The National Alliance (TNA) in 2012, won a staggering 50.07% in the first round, but the result was called into question by the opposition.
Kenya – social conditions
Kenya – social conditions, More than 55% of Kenya’s population (17.1 million people) was defined as poor in 2000 against just over 48% in 1990. In the country’s poorest districts in the driest areas, the poor make up about 80% of the population. Average income per per capita of US $ 360 in 2002 was lower than ten years earlier.
However, following the longest economic crisis since Kenya’s independence, some economic and social progress has been made since 2002. Free schooling has been reintroduced, and education and health spending accounted for around 33% of government spending in 2005, compared to just 24% in 1995. The reintroduction of free elementary education since 2003 has led to a million more children entering schools.
Kenya is severely affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic and it is estimated that approximately 1.4 million are infected. Hundreds of thousands of children are orphans. But Kenya seems to have broken the curve and the rate of infection has been declining since the turn of the millennium.
Inequality is very large, and despite economic growth over the last years, not enough jobs are created. The official unemployment rate is around DKK 2 million. or about 15%, but the real is far greater. A particularly big problem is that according to statistics, the very young make up 45% of the unemployed.
Kenya – Health conditions
Kenya – health conditions, mean life is 57 years for men and 58 years for women; child mortality is 55 per 1000 live-born children (2008). Maternal mortality is 650 per person. 100,000 live-born children. In 1996, Kenya reported 69,000 AIDS patients to WHO, the highest number in Africa. 90% of the prostitutes in Nairobi have been found to be HIV positive, and the infection occurs in 5-35% of selected population groups. pregnant.
Malaria continues to be one of the most frequent causes of death among locals and a serious threat to travelers. The most dangerous malaria type (falciparum) is widespread, however, not in Nairobi or in areas over 2500 m. This type is often resistant to the most common malarial drugs. In addition, there continue to yellow fever, schistosomiasis, including along Lake Victoria, leishmaniasis, sleeping sickness, plettyfus and plague. In addition, epidemic outbreaks of cholera, dengue fever and a number of other tropical diseases occur. 12.5% of the population are carriers of hepatitis B virus.