Lodz [l ɔ t ʃ ], Polish Łódź [ ut ɕ ], capital of the voivodeship of the same name in central Poland, 235 m above sea level, with (2018) 685 300 residents the third largest city in the country.
Lodz is the Catholic bishopric and has a university (founded in 1945), TU (founded in 1945 as TH), medical university and music academy, several colleges (including the University of Film, Television and Theater), industrial research institutes, a branch of the Polish Academy of Sciences, museums (including Art, film, history, archeology, ethnology, textile industry museum), theater, philharmonic orchestra.
The city is the center of an old industrial region and for a long time was characterized by an industrial monostructure (textile, especially cotton, wool and silk industries). After 1945 a slow industrial change began (stronger development of machine, transformer and device construction, the chemical fiber, electronic and printing industries). At the beginning of the 1990s, the change accelerated: Closure of numerous textile companies, relocation of production especially from the city center, increasing importance of trade and services (trade fair location), creation of new production locations (especially electrical and household appliance construction, building materials and food industry, cement works, Energy industry), settlement of a diverse supply industry, special economic zone; Railway junction, international airport.
Classicist town hall (1827), baroque Antonius church (1702–23), baroque wooden church Saint Joseph (1765–68), Franciscan monastery (2nd half of the 18th century), neo-Gothic cathedral (1901–22). With numerous historicist and Art Nouveau houses as well as industrial buildings from the 19th century, the cityscape of the Wilhelminian era has been preserved in many ways. In a former factory owner’s palace of the Poznański family (1888) is now the Museum of City History; next to it a monumental complex of a cotton mill from the Wilhelminian era; in the neo-renaissance palace (1904) today the music academy, in the main palace of the Poznański the art museum. Particularly noteworthy are the historicist commercial, residential and office buildings, including those of the industrialists Heinzel and Kindermann (around and after 1900); likewise the neo-classical weaving mill of the Geyer family (1835–37; today the Central Museum of the Textile Industry). Established the College of Fine Arts B. Kardazewski and J. Jupiecki (1977). The Jewish cemetery in the northern part of the city is reminiscent of the Jewish ghetto.
Lodz, mentioned as a village in 1332, received Magdeburg city rights in 1423. As a location for the textile industry, according to naturegnosis, it grew into the largest industrial city in Poland since 1824 (settlement of German weavers from Saxony, Posen, Silesia and Bohemia). The first steam engine was put into operation in 1838, and Lodz was known as the “Polish Manchester” from the second half of the 19th century. In 1892 there was the first general strike in Poland. 1905-07 it was the scene of bloody fighting between Polish socialists and nationalists. In 1911 Lodz had 522,000 residents (50% Polish, 32% Jewish, 18% German). During the First World War, Lodz was occupied by German troops; 1940-45 it belonged as Litzmannstadt to the “Reichsgau Wartheland”. As part of the National Socialist extermination policy, most of the city’s Jewish residents (almost 33% of the 605,000 residents in 1931) were deported and murdered.
Zebrzydowska Calvary (World Heritage)
The pilgrimage route built in the 17th century southwest of Kraków is considered the second most important pilgrimage destination in Poland after Czestochowa. The sacred complex, which is harmoniously embedded in the landscape, consists of a Baroque basilica, a monastery and 40 chapels in the Baroque and Mannerist style. The sites are spread over a radius of six kilometers and are dedicated to the passion of Jesus and the life of Mary.
Calvary Zebrzydowska: facts
|Official title:||Zebrzydowska Calvary|
|Cultural monument:||Second largest Marian shrine in Poland, destination of numerous pilgrims; Calvary in a park landscape based on the Baroque model, laid out from 1604 by the Krakow voivod M. Zebrzydowski on Mount Tsar; 40 chapels modeled on the holy places of Jerusalem (14 Stations of the Cross), including “House of Mary” (1612 to 1614), “Herod’s Palace” (1609), “Pilate’s Town Hall” (1605–1609); Franciscan monastery; baroque “Church of the Mother of God”; performance of the Passion Play at Easter|
|Location:||35 km southwest of Krakow|
|Meaning:||Outstanding example of a Calvary from the time of the Counter Reformation|
Calvary Zebrzydowska: history
|1600||The Cracow voivode M. Zebrzydowski erected a Church of the Holy Cross on Mount Tsar|
|1602||Foundation of a monastery by the Franciscans|
|1604||Construction of the Kalvarienberg and construction of 24 Stations of the Cross chapels (until 1617)|
|1609||Completion of the monastery and monastery church|
|from 1620||Construction of further Stations of the Cross|
|1655||Expansion of the monastery|
|1692-1720||Expansion of the monastery church|
|1920||Birth of Karol Wojtyla, later John Paul II, in Wadowice, in the immediate vicinity of the Kalwaria|
|1979||Visit of Kalwaria by Pope John Paul II.|