Mexico Trade

Subchapters:

  • Business Relationships
  • Foreign direct investment
  • FTAs ​​and Treaties
  • Development Cooperation
  • Prospective fields of study (MOP)

Business relations

Trade relations with the EU

The EU is Mexico’s third largest trading partner and Mexico is the EU’s second largest trading partner in Latin America (after Brazil) and seventeenth overall.

In 2021, the export of industrial goods (92%) from the EU had a higher share than that of primary goods (7%). The most exported industrial goods were machinery and vehicles (48%), followed by other processed products (24%) and chemicals (20%). In 2021, the import of industrial goods (76%) from Mexico to the EU also had a higher share than that of primary goods (23%). The most imported industrial goods were machinery and vehicles (50%), followed by other processed products (21%) and chemicals (6%).

2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
Exports from the EU (million EUR) 36,158.80 37,664.70 37,447.50 30,545.70 37,718.50
Imports into the EU (million EUR) 21,712.50 23,684.60 24,357.80 20,386.70 23,414.00
Balance with the EU (million EUR) -14,446.3 -13,980.1 -13,089.7 -10,159.0 -14,304.5

Source: European Commission

Trade relations with the Czech Republic

In 2021, for the first time after long-term stable and growing exports to Mexico, there was a decrease. Due to the increase in imported goods from Mexico, a negative balance was recorded. Among the main exported products in recent years are equipment for audio and video recording for televisions, followed by cars and other motor vehicles, and in third place are mechanical tools such as boilers and reactors. Among the main imported products are equipment for sound and video recording for televisions, followed by mechanical tools such as boilers and reactors, and in third place is medical equipment.

2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
Exports from the Czech Republic (billion CZK) 16.5 17.8 19.1 20.7 16.9
Imports to the Czech Republic (billion CZK) 19.5 17.3 20.8 21 22.6
Balance with the Czech Republic (billion CZK) 3 -0.6 1.7 0.3 5.7

Source: businesscarriers.com

Trade relations with countries outside the EU

Mexico has free trade agreements with 45 countries in North America, Latin America, Europe and Asia. The most important trading partners of Mexico are: USA, Canada, Japan.

Major export products include: food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron, steel, minerals, petroleum, textiles, clothing, automotive and electronic components and products.

2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
Exports from countries outside the EU (million EUR) 311,858.9 345 441.1 354,065.7 323,903.8 382 372.8
Imports to countries outside the EU (million EUR) 335,622.9 370,972.4 362,597.6 305 151.2 406 444.3
Balance with non-EU countries (million EUR) -23,764.0 -25,531.3 -8,531.8 18,752.6 -24,071.5

Source: EIU, Eurostat

Foreign direct investment

According to the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), Mexico is the 9th destination for receiving foreign direct investment. In 2021, the Mexican economy attracted foreign direct investment worth USD 31.621 billion, an increase of 8.7% compared to 2020. By type of investment: profit reinvestment (38.6%), new investment (43.7%), intercompany accounts (17.7%). By sector, these were manufacturing (39.7%), mining (15.2%), financial and insurance services (15.0%), transport (8.8%), trade (8.5%), accommodation services (5.2%) and remaining sectors (7.6%). By country of origin: USA (47.5%), Spain (13.7%). Canada (6.5%), Great Britain (5.7%), Germany (5.2%), Japan (5.0%) and other countries (16.4%). In an effort to encourage more foreign direct investment, the Ministry of Economy has established a support program and platform”Invest in Mexico”.

In the period January to September 2021, FDI from the Czech Republic to Mexico reached USD 191,000 in the form of new investments. During this period, FDI went to the states of Quintana Roo, Baja California Sur and Nuevo León.

FTAs and treaties

Treaties with the EU

Political and economic relations between the European Union and Mexico are governed by the Global Agreement of 1997 (valid since 2000), which also includes the Free Trade Agreement (FTA), which regulates the movement of goods and services. Thanks to the Free Trade Agreement, mutual trade in goods between the two partners increased by 148%, and today almost 42% of foreign investment heading to Mexico comes from European Union countries. The process of modernizing the Global Agreement, which further deepens political and economic ties, has now been completed. The new Agreement should enter into force in 2022.

Contracts with the Czech Republic

Government agreements
Agreement on air transport (in force 22/01/1991)
Basic agreement on scientific and technical cooperation (in force 01/04/1996)
Agreement on the abolition of the visa requirement for holders of all passports and Agreement on the abolition of the visa requirement for holders of diplomatic and service passports (in force 24.1.2000)
Agreement on educational and cultural cooperation (effective 3.6.2002) Agreement on trade and economic cooperation (effective 29.8.2000)

Presidential Agreements
Agreement on the Support and Mutual Protection of Investments (effective 13/03/2004)
Agreement on Avoidance of Double Taxation and Prevention of Tax Evasion in the Field of Income and Property Taxes (effective 27/12/2002)

Departmental agreements
Memorandum on cooperation in the field of tourism between the MMR of the Czech Republic and the Ministry of Tourism of Mexico (effective 8 March 2004)
Memorandum on mutual cooperation between the Mexican Council of Foreign Trade (COMCE) and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic (12 October 2001)
Memorandum on cooperation of the Ministry of the Interior The Czech Republic and the Ministry of the Interior of Mexico (effective 20/03/2006)
Agreement between the Ministry of Economy of the Czech Republic and the Ministry of Economy of Mexico on strengthening bilateral economic cooperation (effective 12/05/2006)
Agreement on cooperation between the MoD of the Czech Republic and the MoD of Mexico (effective 15/10/2019)

Developmental cooperation

Due to the development of the Mexican economy, the Czech Republic does not provide the United States with Mexican development aid. Based on an intergovernmental agreement, the Czech Republic and Mexico provide government study scholarships on a reciprocal basis (more information on the website of the Embassy of the Czech Republic in Mexico ).

Prospective fields of study (MOP)

Automotive

Mexico is the 6th largest producer and 4th largest exporter of automobiles in the world. Most of the world’s car companies have production here, with the majority of production going to the USA. With the conclusion of a new free trade agreement between the US, Canada and Mexico, supply chains are being reconfigured and new opportunities are emerging in the area of ​​Tier 1 and 2. Attention is increasingly focused on the environmental consideration of production and product – with a gradual transition to alternative sources of propulsion demand for replacements for internal combustion engines and for knowledge products such as advanced materials and modern manufacturing technologies is rising.

Defense industry

Mexico is one of the most important security markets in Latin America. Not only the government is forced to invest in increased protection, but also companies and private individuals invest considerable resources to protect their production plants and goods. The security sector is therefore one of the most dynamic sectors in the economy, with security sales increasing by an average of 13% since 2015 alone. The Mexican government confirmed the priority perception of security by increasing the budget for the security forces in 2022 by 14.4% to 1billion USD. Opportunities are offered across individual sectors, from armaments and equipment for security forces, to industrial, cyber and personal protection. In this case, the good news for Czech manufacturers is the fact that since 2019 the Czech Republic belongs to Mexico’s prioritized countries for the purchase of defense and security equipment,

Healthcare and pharmaceutical industry

Before the pandemic, Mexico was already the 4th largest medical technology market in the Americas, which is 90% dependent on imports. The demand for health services increases every year due to the aging of the population and the increase in the number of civilization diseases. The pharmaceutical market is also promising, already the 11th largest in the world, which is growing at a rate of 6% per year. The current reconfiguration of the state healthcare purchasing system, which disrupted existing monopolies, also opened up the market for new suppliers. A clear trend in both the state and private sector is the large-scale electronicization of healthcare services – from robotization of operations to telemedicine – and the related demand for IT solutions.

Energy industry

The Mexican energy industry has undergone a stormy development in recent years. The current demand of 330.1 TWh is growing every year with the boom in industry, electromobility and the rising demographic curve. A reform adopted in 2013 opened the market to private producers, who without delay began to change the energy map of Mexico. Within a few years, the share of electricity production from renewable sources has increased substantially to the current 31%, which continues to grow at a rate of around 13% per year. With this development, the demand for modern technologies and IT solutions has risen sharply. Enhancing energy independence is one of the main priorities of the Mexican government, which is reflected in the unprecedented public investment in energy infrastructure. Currently, the government’s main project is the construction of the new Dos Bocas refinery in the state of Tabasco, with an estimated budget of 8-10 billion USD.

Transport industry and infrastructure

The development of the Mexican economy, the 16th largest in the world, necessarily entails the requirement for the existence of quality infrastructure. Therefore, the government is increasing investment in infrastructure in an unprecedented manner and has allocated USD 20 billion for four flagship projects. Work on them did not stop even during the pandemic, on the contrary, new projects were launched to support the poor economy. This is mainly the construction of new airports, the new railway “Tren Maya” in the south-east of Mexico (the Yucatán Peninsula) or the transport corridor between the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean. Opportunities for Czech companies are offered mainly in the supply chains of large European companies, which largely implement these projects.

ICT

Demand for advanced technologies and innovative products across sectors continues to rise in Mexico. The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated digital transformation and intelligent manufacturing automation. New trends also bring new threats, which need to be adapted to security. Therefore, companies and individuals are also in great demand for technologies for secure data management and sharing. In the long term, there is also interest in cooperation in applied research, but also in specific areas such as Industry 4.0, Smart Cities, Life Sciences, IT and others.

Mexico Trade