Myanmar Society

By | May 13, 2023

Myanmar is a Southeast Asian country bordered by India, Bangladesh, China, Laos, and Thailand. According to, it has a population of over 54 million people living in an area of 676,578 sq km. The official language is Burmese and the currency is the Kyat. The predominant religion is Buddhism with nearly 90% of the population following it. However, there are other religions present such as Christianity and Hinduism.

The government in Burma is a military junta which has been in power since 1962 and suppresses any political dissent or opposition to its rule. This has led to human rights abuses such as arbitrary arrests and torture of political activists. The economic situation in Burma remains poor due to mismanagement and corruption by the military government which has caused widespread poverty and inequality among citizens.

Education in Burma is free but only for primary education; secondary and higher education must be paid for by parents or guardians. This has resulted in many children not being able to afford schooling beyond primary level which has resulted in low literacy rates particularly for women who are often unable to access education due to cultural barriers or lack of financial resources. Health care services are also limited with most people relying on traditional medicine for their health needs due to lack of access or affordability of modern medical facilities.

Despite these challenges facing Burma, there have been some positive developments over the past decade including greater economic freedom, improved infrastructure such as roads and telecommunications networks as well as increased access to technology such as mobile phones and internet access. Additionally, there have been moves towards greater transparency from the government with more information being made available on public policies which could help create an environment more conducive for growth if implemented properly.

Myanmar Society

Demographics of Burma

Burma is a diverse country, with a population of over 54 million people from 135 different ethnic and tribal groups. The majority of the population is Bamar, which makes up 68% of the total population. Other significant ethnic groups include Shan (9%), Kayin (7%), Rakhine (4%), Mon (2%) and Chin (2%). There are also many smaller ethnic minorities such as Karenni, Kachin and Wa.

The official language in Burma is Burmese, spoken by the majority Bamar people. However, there are also many minority languages spoken in the country including Shan, Kachin, Chin and Karen languages. English is also widely spoken by educated people in Burma, particularly in cities like Yangon and Mandalay.

The main religion in Burma is Buddhism which is practiced by approximately 90% of the population. Other religions present include Christianity (4%), Islam (3%) and Hinduism (1%). There are also many animist beliefs among some of the minority ethnic groups such as Karenni, Kachin and Wa.

Burma has a young population with 40% under the age of 15 years old and only 5% over 65 years old. The average life expectancy at birth for males is 64 years old while for females it’s 68 years old. The literacy rate in Burma is around 89%, however this varies greatly between regions with urban areas having higher rates than rural areas due to better access to education services.

The economy of Burma remains largely agricultural based with agriculture accounting for 36% of GDP while industry makes up 23%. The main agricultural products produced include rice, pulses, beans, sesame seeds and groundnuts while industrial production includes textiles, wood products and construction materials amongst others. Tourism has become increasingly important to the economy due to its rich cultural heritage as well as its natural beauty including over 2200 miles of coastline along the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea as well as numerous national parks containing lush forests home to rare wildlife species such as tigers and elephants.

Poverty in Burma

Poverty in Burma is a major issue facing the country and its people. The World Bank estimates that 28% of the population lives below the national poverty line, with this figure rising to 44.5% when considering rural areas only. This is one of the highest levels of poverty in Southeast Asia, and has been exacerbated by decades of political instability, conflict and economic mismanagement.

The lack of economic opportunities has meant that many people are unable to find gainful employment or access basic services such as healthcare or education. As a result, many households are unable to meet their basic needs and are trapped in a cycle of poverty. According to estimates by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), almost 40% of children aged 5–17 years old are engaged in child labour due to their families’ low incomes.

The rural poor are particularly vulnerable to poverty due to their limited access to basic services such as healthcare, education and electricity. Many rural households depend on subsistence farming for their livelihoods which can be unreliable due to frequent droughts and floods. Additionally, land ownership is often concentrated among wealthy elites who control large swathes of land leaving little for small-scale farmers who struggle with low yields and meager incomes.

The lack of infrastructure development has also hampered economic growth in Burma as it limits businesses from entering new markets or accessing new technologies which can increase productivity and profits. Poor infrastructure also reduces access to essential services such as clean water, sanitation facilities and electricity resulting in high levels of preventable diseases among vulnerable populations such as children under five years old who account for two thirds of all deaths due to poor health conditions.

Burma’s government has launched several initiatives aimed at reducing poverty including increasing social welfare spending, providing agricultural subsidies for small-scale farmers and investing in infrastructure projects such as roads, bridges and ports which could help foster economic growth. However, much more needs to be done if poverty is to be reduced significantly in Burma; this includes tackling corruption at all levels so that resources are properly utilized for those most in need as well as introducing policies which promote job creation through investment into education, skills training and entrepreneurship programs so that people can access decent work opportunities.

Labor Market in Burma

According to Countryvv, the labor market in Burma is characterized by a large informal economy, low wages, and limited job opportunities. According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), approximately 85% of all employment in the country is informal and most of these jobs are concentrated in low-skilled or manual labor. As a result, wages for these jobs are very low and do not provide enough income for workers to meet their basic needs.

In the formal economy, there is a shortage of skilled workers due to lack of access to quality education and training opportunities. This leads to employers having difficulty finding qualified individuals for higher-skilled positions such as engineering or IT which often have much better pay than lower-skilled positions. Furthermore, many employers prefer to hire young workers who they can pay less than older workers due to their lack of experience.

The lack of job security in Burma also affects the labor market as most jobs are short-term contracts with no benefits or insurance and there is little protection for those who lose their jobs or have their wages withheld by employers. This makes it difficult for people to save money or invest in long-term projects such as starting a business which could help create more job opportunities in the future.

Gender inequality is also prevalent in the labor market as women often face discrimination when applying for certain types of jobs due to cultural norms that dictate that women should stay at home while men work outside the home. Furthermore, gender wage disparities exist with women earning less than men even when performing similar tasks and this further perpetuates poverty among female-headed households.

Finally, corruption continues to be an issue in Burma’s labor market with employers bribing government officials or using child labour instead of hiring adults at higher wages which could help reduce poverty levels across the country if done properly.

Overall, there are significant challenges facing Burma’s labor market which must be addressed if economic growth and job creation are going to be achieved in the future. This includes introducing policies aimed at tackling corruption, improving access to quality education and training opportunities so that people can acquire skills needed for higher-skilled positions, promoting gender equality through equal pay legislation, providing job security through long-term contracts with benefits and insurance coverage as well as enforcing laws against child labour so that vulnerable populations can benefit from economic growth.