Niger – National Flag
Niger – National Flag, The flag was officially adopted in 1959. The orange color stands for the Sahara, the green symbolizes the south rainforests as well as the hope, the white represents the Niger river and purity. The sun in the middle is a symbol of the will of the people to defend its rights.
- Countryaah: What does the flag of Niger look like? Follow this link, then you will see the image in PNG format and flag meaning description about this country.
Niger – Prehistory
According to a2zgov, archaeological finds show that man has settled in the country during periods of wetter climates, more lush vegetation and richer wildlife than in the present. At Blaka Kallia in northern Niger there are found acheulé- type towels from the older mansion. Several places are known from the atérienne culture, approximately 40,000-30,000 years before now, with well-shaped, flat-cut flint tips. During the driest and coolest part of the last ice age, 30,000-15,000 years ago, the desert spread and the area seems uninhabited.
In the humid climate prevailing at the end of the ice age, hunters and fishermen settled down by rivers and lakes. Plant breeding began early and the oldest pottery in the Sahara is found at Tagalagal in the Aïr Mountains, dating to 9000-8000 BC. Numerous Neolithic settlements are known from the 6th millennium to the 2nd millennium, the most extensive being found at Adrar Bous, where cattle breeding was practiced from 4700-4500 BC. This is known from stone tools, manufactured among others. of green jasper. The extraction and processing of copper from local deposits took place around Agadèz from approximately 2000 BC, while iron manufacturing is known from approximately 300 BC.
Niger – History
Niger – History, The western part of Niger was from approximately 1100, part of the Songhair kingdom that extended into present-day Mali. The southern part of the country was dominated by the Hausa states during the same period, and in the northern part the Tuareg people are believed to have ruled from about 1200.
- AbbreviationFinder: Check three-letter abbreviation for each country in the world, such as NER which represents the official name of Niger.
The French colonialization of the area progressed from west to east and north from the 1880’s to approximately 1920. In 1922, Niger transitioned from a military to a civilian colony administration.
At the independence of 1960, the Party of progressist Nigeria-Rassemblement démocratique africain (PPN-RDA) came to power with Hamani Diori as president. Diori concentrated power on the presidency, and despite the democratic constitution, Niger was in fact a one-party government. Drought, economic crisis and political discontent with the regime in 1974 led to a military coup led by Seyni Kountché. He suspended the constitution and dissolved the political parties. For the first years, Kountché neutralized all potential opposition by either banning it or incorporating it into the regime’s political unity organization, the Société de développement. Kountché’s successor, Ali Saibou, transformed the organization into a political party, the Mouvement national pour la société de développement (MNSD), and in 1989 reintroduced a constitution that secured the MNSD, the only political party, and the president all political power.
Political discontent led to general strikes and in 1992 to the introduction of a democratic constitution. In the 1993 parliamentary elections, three parties successfully managed to win over MNSD, including the Convention Democratique et Social (CDS) and the Party for Democracy and Le Progress (PNDS). In the subsequent presidential election, Mahamane Ousmane won from CDS. However, the state economy was in deep crisis. Wages for state employees, including the army, were absent, and there was constant political unrest with strikes and minor mutiny. After the government coalition disbanded in 1994, the government transferred to MNSD and PNDS.
In 1996, the military again assumed power under the leadership of Chief of Staff General Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara (1949-99). The country’s fourth constitution was passed by a referendum in May 1996. Maïnassara was elected at the following presidential election, which was criticized internationally. In protest, most parties boycotted the following parliamentary elections. In 1999, Maïnassara was assassinated by a military coup. The leader of the coup, Major Daouda Mallam Wanké (1954? -2004), formed government with, among other things, opposition. The board announced a nine-month transition period until the adoption of a democratic constitution.
In 1999, voters supported the new constitution that paved the way for presidential elections and elections to parliament. Mamadou Tandja (b. 1938) was elected new president and his party, the Mouvement national pour la société de développement (MNSD), became the largest party in parliament. In 2002, unrest erupted in the army due to lack of payroll. Niger was in the spotlight in 2003 when, among other things, US President George Bush claimed that Iraq had previously tried to buy uranium in Niger for the production of nuclear weapons. However, the allegation turned out to be wearing nothing. Mamadou Tandja was re-elected to the presidential post in 2004. Under his rule, some political stability was achieved.
A controversial referendum in 2009 that changed the constitution so that the president could continue in office for two periods of five years caused great turmoil and the world community isolating the country and halting national aid.
A military coup in February 2010 ousted President Tandje and his government. After that, the military had the power, even though there was the promise of holding democratic elections. In March 2011, elections were finally held, and here Mahamadou Issoufou (b. 1952) was elected new president.