Nigeria – national flag
Nigeria – National Flag, The flag was first officially launched in 1960. It is designed by a Nigerian student who won the competition to design a national flag. The green color stands for arable farming, the white symbolizes peace and unity.
- Countryaah: What does the flag of Nigeria look like? Follow this link, then you will see the image in PNG format and flag meaning description about this country.
Nigeria – history
According to a2zgov, for approximately 7,000 years ago, farmers who were possibly Bantu people settled in the central highlands of Nigeria. In this area the Nok culture flourished for approximately 500 BC-200 AD North African and Islamic influence in northern Nigeria formed the basis for the first state formation, the largest in 1000-t. were Kanem-Bornu and the Hausa States. The realms benefited from trade through the Sahara, including gold, leather, salt and slaves.
- AbbreviationFinder: Check three-letter abbreviation for each country in the world, such as NG which represents the official name of Nigeria.
In the early 1800’s. led Usman dan Fodio of the Fulani-dominated Sokotokalifat holy war, jihad, against the Hausa states, where Muslim administration was introduced in many places. In southern Nigeria, the Ibbo people were able to withstand invasion attempts from the north and west, and in the SV, Yoruba in the 900-t. established a state in Ife that flourished approximately From 1000 to 1400.
In the late 1400-t. the Portuguese arrived on the coast of Nigeria and thus began the transatlantic trade in slaves, and after the British in the 1600’s. had come to the country, they played from the 1700’s. a leading role in the slave trade. Britain initiated the colonization of Nigeria in 1861, declaring Lagos and later the Yoruba states to be protectorates. After the Berlin Conference of 1884-85, the British conquered southern Nigeria and 1901-06 the north. In 1906, the Protectorates of Lagos and the Niger Coast were merged into a Southern Protectorate, and in 1914 the Northern and Southern Protectorate were united to Nigeria; Africa’s largest population colony.
|1975-76||Murtala Ramat Muhammad|
|1979-83||Alhaji Shehu Shagari|
After World War II, the demand for independence grew, and in 1947 the British expanded the so-called Native Authorities’ authority and divided the colony into three regions with their own regional councils. In 1944, Benjamin Azikiwe co-founded the Eastern Nigerian, ibodominated National Council for Nigeria and the Cameroons (NCNC), and in 1950 the Western-based Action Group (AG) was formed with Obafemi Awolowo as leader; Abubakar Balewa was co-founder of the Northern People’s Congress (NPC) in 1951.
The political debate in Nigeria concerned the strength of the three regions in relation to a central power; the densely populated north and the relatively affluent west wanted regional autonomy, while the NCNC, which represented the relatively poor eastern region, wanted a strong central power. After the 1959 elections, the largest party, the NPC, formed a coalition government with the NCNC. The coalition led Nigeria to independence as a constitutional monarchy in 1960; 1.10.1963 Nigeria was transformed into a republic with Benjamin Azikiwe as president.
Despite a powerful position in the Third World, Nigeria was weakened by internal, constitutional and regional political problems. Thus, Western Nigeria and Party AG were without real influence, and the NPC/NCNC’s attempt to exploit a split in AG in 1962 as well as the formation of a Midwest region in 1963 destabilized the western part of Nigeria and weakened the credibility of the federal government. In 1964 and 1965, corruption, rising food prices and social inequality led to unrest and general strikes.
On January 15, 1966, the military took power under the leadership of the ibogen general Aguiyi-Ironsi (1924-66). Later that year, he was assassinated and replaced by Lieutenant Colonel Yakubu Gowon, who hails from Northern Nigeria. The residents of eastern Nigeria rejected the new regime, and in May 1967, their leaders declared the area independent under the name Republic of Biafra. After a violent civil war, the Biafra War, which lasted until January 1970, Biafra again became part of Nigeria. It is assumed that approximately 1.5 million Biafranians died during the war, especially from hunger.
After the Biafra war, junta leader Yakuba Gowon was successful in his national reconciliation process, but his economic policy was a failure. Despite promises of civilian rule, Gowon declared in 1970 that the military would remain in power indefinitely. In 1975, he was overthrown by a military coup under the leadership of Murtala Ramat Muhammad (1938-76). Muhammad initiated a crusade against corruption and more than 10,000 public servants were charged or fired. In 1976, Muhammad was assassinated during a coup where his deputy, Lieutenant General Olusegun Obasanjo, took power.
In 1979 elections were held. Alhaji Shehu Shagari and his party National Party of Nigeria (NPN) got a good election and Shagari became president; the military withdrew from power. The corruption and the chaotic economic situation continued, and the fall in oil prices in the 1980’s caused Nigeria’s economy to collapse. At the same time, tensions in the north grew, with violent riots costing many lives.
On New Year’s Eve 1983, the military regained power. Major General Muhamad Buhari became a new military leader, but his authoritarian rule did not help the country’s situation, and in 1985 General Ibrahim Babangida took power. Under his rule, with the support of the International Monetary Fund, several structural adjustments were made that led to social tensions and widespread unrest in 1989 as well as a subsequent coup attempt in 1990 that sharpened the contradictions between the predominantly Muslim north and the Christian south in particular.
The hope of a return to civilian rule was strengthened by the 1992 parliamentary elections, with only two parties participating. The winner of the election became the Social Democratic Party (SPD) under the leadership of Mushood Abiola (1937-98). The presidential election the following year had Abiola as the winner, but the regime canceled the election in June, and in November Babangida handed over the government to General Sani Abacha (1943-98), who placed Abiola in house arrest. After Abacha’s death, the regime deployed General Abdulsalam Abubakar (b. 1942) as the new head of state. Shortly thereafter, Abiola died in her house arrest, causing violent riots. In February 1999, Olusegun Obasanjo won the presidential election, scheduled as the final step in the transition to civilian rule.
The transition to civilian rule in 1999 has not provided the country’s hope for stability. Instead, the ethnic and religious conflicts that were suppressed during the military dictatorship have been able to unfold more freely, and thousands have lost their lives in bloody clashes around the country. In addition, the balance of the traditional conflict between the Muslim north and the predominantly Christian south has shifted as power has shifted from the military, with northern Nigerians, especially Hausa, dominating, to Christian Olusegun Obasanjo, Christian, Yoruba and from southern Nigeria.
Islamic legislation has been introduced in several of the states in Northern Nigeria. It has caused many Christians to flee, and there has been a great deal of international focus on Nigeria in court cases where women have been sentenced to death for adultery by Islamic courts. ultimately will be denied by the federal courts, is yet to be clarified.
Obasanjo was re-elected in 2003, but on charges of electoral fraud. However, the attempt to amend the constitution so that Obasanjo could stand for a third term was rejected by the Senate. At the April 2007 presidential election, Umaru defeated Yar’Adua of Obasanjo’s ruling People’s Democratic Party. Also in connection with this election, there were charges of widespread electoral fraud both from the opposition and from international observers.
Nigeria has in recent years claimed its position as one of Africa’s most dominant states, including through its commitment to the West African Cooperation Organization ECOWAS and the delivery of peacekeeping forces in several of the region’s troubled countries. Within the country’s borders, there are still frequent violent clashes between various ethnic, religious and political groups. Thus, about 100 people were killed during battles between ijaw and its security in Delta State in 2003; in 2004, several hundred Muslims were killed by Christians in Plateau State, which sparked revenge on Christians in predominantly Muslim Kano State. Several times there have also been clashes between the military and militant rebels or criminal gangs in the oil fields.
At the same time, however, it is the longest period of democracy and civilian rule Nigeria has enjoyed since independence, and the country is experiencing economic progress, both through debt restructuring and rising oil prices.
In 2010, Umaru Yar’Adua died and Goodluck Jonathan took office. At the 2011 election, he won office.
The Islamist militant group Boko Haram, established in 2002, has since 2009 been behind several violent episodes in the country especially against Christians. Several thousands have been killed and hundreds of young girls have been abducted, many of whom have been sold as slaves. The government was criticized for inactivity, which contributed to Goodluck Jonathan surprisingly losing the 2015 presidential election to Muhammad Buhari.