Norway Literature

The often heterogeneous, exact classification often eluded cultural and literary currents of the 19th century developed further apart in the 20th century, with contrasts often appearing in the individual poet personalities. In K. Hamsun , the most important epic, seemed a of W. F. Nietzsche influenced vitalism with an anti-civilizing and anti-democratic tendency, which later culminated in a fatal sympathy for National Socialist ideas and alienated the poet from the people. From the narrative tradition of the 19th century, several authors continued a main theme of Norwegian literature with different accentuation, the antagonism between old peasant culture and modern bourgeois civilization: S. Undset , O. Duun and Oskar Braaten (* 1881, † 1939). Besides the novel, only the poetry was of greater importance. It also took up the heterogeneous arsenal of themes and forms of the 19th century, with a predominance of authors writing in Landsmål underlining the national reference. Visit sportsqna.com for Norway landscapes.

The poetry of H. Wildenvey, O. Bull, A. Øverland et al. had a high status in the cultural life of the nation and was received by all social classes. Topics and techniques of “modernist” European literature, the insights of S. Freud and the formal innovations of M. Proust and J. Joyce did not find timid echo until the 1930s and 1940s: in the novels of S. Hoel accompanied by the social debate and criticism of fascism, which temporarily united the different socio-political standpoints of various poets and gave them a common goal in the resistance against the German occupation; the Protestant ethicists R. Fangen and Sigurd Wesley Christiansen (* 1891, † 1947), the Catholic S. Undset, the socialists N. Grieg, A. Sandemose and A. Øverland who, in his programmatic poem “Vi overlever alt” (We survive everything, published in 1945), which was widely distributed illegally, gave the literary motto for the post-war period as early as 1940. The experience of the German occupation became a central theme of Norwegian literature for years after 1945: the German occupation was also a national trauma in the trial against K. Hamsun and in his memory book (»Paa gjengrodde stier«, 1949; German »On overgrown paths«) painfully clear as in novels by J. Borgen, S. Hoel , Kåre Holt (* 1917, † 1997) and T. Vesaas who in his work not only tries to cope with the period of occupation, but also undertakes to link it to modern European traditions; these were also taken over by A. Sandemose and J. Borgen , while A. Hauge (* 1915, † 1986) and Terje Stigen (* 1922, † 2010) cultivated a more traditional storytelling art. The poetry sensitized by T. Ørjasæter, on the other hand, remained for a long time in the inwardness of »hidden Norway«, v. a. Olav Sletto (* 1886, † 1963) and Inge Krokann (* 1893, † 1962), and in national, religious, nature-loving or socially critical traditions until they were introduced in the 1960s by P. Brekke, Stein Mehren (* 1935, † 2017) and J. E. Vold caught up with experimental European tendencies that A. Mykle, J. Bjørneboe and F. Alnæs had previously established in their novels. These experimental and social-modernist tendencies, which emerged towards the end of the 1960s and beginning of the 1970s BC. a. condensed around the magazines “Profil” and “Bazaar” (JE Vold; T. Obrestad, E. Økland; Espen Haavardsholm, * 1945; D. Solstad), developed in the course of the 1970s / 80s from one by D. SolstadsRoman “Arild Asnes 1970” (1971) introduced (social) realism (including Edvard Hoem, * 1949; L. Køltzow ) to an “inner” (E. Økland, P.-H. Haugen) or imaginative (Tor Åge Bringsværd, * 1939; Mari Osmundsen, * 1951) and psychologically (K. Faldbakken, C. Løveid ) oriented direction. The gender relationship and its stereotypical behavioral patterns are discussed by numerous authors, including Bjørg Vik (* 1935). In addition, in the 1980s there was the difficult to categorize, formally more traditional, poetic narrative style as in Jan Kjærstad (* 1953), K. Fløgstad and, in an outstanding way, at Herbjørg Wassmos; the poetry is represented by Terje Johanssen (* 1942, † 2005).

Recourse to the Norwegian narrative tradition (e.g. C. Sandel ; Torborg Aud Nedreaas, * 1906, † 1987) can be found again in the prose, v. a. in the novel of the 1990s, for example by Lars S. Christensen (* 1953), Torill Thorstad Hauger (* 1943, † 2014) and by E. F. Hansen and J. Gaarder, who brought Norwegian literature strong international recognition. J. Kjærstads stands out from a wealth of crime fiction postmodern crime novel »Rand« (1990; German), in which the city is described as a social and cultural hotspot. J. Fosse is one of the literary figures who have received much international attention in recent times, whose dramas are in the naturalistic tradition of H. Ibsen and A. Strindberg and often address the perception of transience and the search for metaphysical meaning with fewer characters. Religious questions and poetological self-reflection determine the lyrical debuts of the 1990s, including the works of Steinar Opstad (* 1971).

So far, three Norwegian writers have received the Nobel Prize for Literature: B. Bjørnson (1903), K. Hamsun (1920) and Sigrid Undset (1928).

Norway Literature