Polish Literature 2

At the same time sensitive works (ballads, idylls, novels) appeared. Brodziński introduced the Polish public to Romanticism through his treatise “O klasyczności i romantyczności” (1818). The interest in history, folklore and feeling favored the emergence of romanticism, which was brought about by »Ballady i romanse« (1822; German »Balladen und Romanzen«) as well as »Grażyna« (1823; German) and »Dziady« (parts 2 and 4, 1823; German “Die Totenfeier”) by A. Mickiewicz had a breakthrough.

Other romantic works appeared, such as the verse story “Maria” (1825; German) by A. Malczewski and “Zamek kaniowski” (1828; German “Das Schloß von Kaniow”) by S. Goszczyński, but the dispute between classicists and romantics, in which not only aesthetic attitudes but also political attitudes (loyalty or revolution) were discussed, only decided in favor of the Romantics by the November uprising 1830–31.

Romanticism (1831–63)

Romantic literature took on the task of preserving national unity and preparing for state rebirth. The work of the three great romantics Mickiewicz, J. Słowacki and Z. Krasiński, who found a suitable artistic form in poetic drama, stood in this symbol. In “Dziady”, part 3 (1832) by Mickiewicz, the poet becomes the leader and servant of his people, in “Kordian” (1834) by Słowacki the revolting romantic hero fails, in “Nie-Boska komedia” (1835; German “ungodtliche Comedy “) and” Irydion “(1836; German” Iridion in Rome “), Krasiński thematizes the historical-philosophical implications of revolutions. According to cheeroutdoor, the from Mickiewicz formulated the messianic ideology of Poland as the savior of the peoples (especially in “Księgi narodu i pielgrzymstwa polskiego”, 1832; German “The books of the Polish people and the Polish pilgrimage”) was used in Słowacki’s dramatic work (“Ksiądz Marek”, 1843; »Sen srebrny Salomei«, 1844) philosophically exaggerated and then gave way to the mystical idea of ​​a »revolution from the spirit« (poem »Genezis z ducha«, 1844; epopee »Król-Duch«, 1847). The contemporary stage was dominated by historical dramas and comedies (A. Graf Fredro).

The poetry was represented by important poets (along with Mickiewicz and Słowacki, among others, Teofil Lenartowicz [* 1822, † 1893], K. Ujejski), but the emphasis was next to the drama on the verse epic in the Polish national epic »Pan Tadeusz« (1834; German »Herr Thaddäus or the last entry into Lithuania«) by Mickiewicz and in »Beniowski« (1841) by Słowacki owns her most important works. – The great prose form was decisively promoted by J. I. Kraszewski’s historical novels.

Positivism (1864-90)

After the failure of the uprising of 1863, political resistance was given up in favor of economic and cultural “work on the grassroots”. Under the influence of English and Russian models, a realism then prevailed in the novel and narrative, the works of which, through their skilful design, defined social problems more sharply (H. Sienkiewicz, »Szkice węglem«, 1880, German »coal drawings«; Eliza Orzeszkowa, » Nad Niemnem ”, 1887, German“ Herbst am Njemen ”; B. Prus,“ Lalka ”, 1890, German“ The Doll ”).

In addition, historical novels were written that promoted patriotism (Kraszewski, Sienkiewicz) or encoded current problems (Sienkiewicz, “Quo vadis”, 1896, German; B. Prus, “Faraon”, 1897, German “Der Pharao”).

In lyric poetry, the romantic tradition was usually continued in epigones, but was decisively further developed by C. K. Norwid (»Poezje«, 1863). A. Asnyk wrote philosophical poems, Maria Konopnicka socially critical poems. In terms of drama, Norwid’s tragedies and comedies stood out, but the social comedies Fredro and A. Świętochowski ‘s drama were played on the stage.

Modernism (1890-1918)

In this epoch, also known as »Young Poland« (»Młoda Polska«), poetry, influenced by Western European symbolists, took off again with the emotional poetry of nature and love by K. Tetmajer Przerwa (»Poezje«, 1891), the »L ‘ art-pour-l’art “poem by S. Przybyszewski, the hymn songs by J. Kasprowicz (” Hymny “, 1899–1901) and the reflective poetry by L. Staffs (” Sny o potędze “, 1901).

The drama, too, was rich in new forms, all of which dominated the stage works by S. Wyspiański (“Wesele”, 1901, German “The Wedding”; historical dramas), who most clearly drew on romantic traditions. Also noteworthy are Gabriela Zapolska’ssocially critical comedies (»Moralność pani Dulskiej«, 1907; German »Die Moral der Frau Dulski«), K. H. Rostworowski’s historical tragedies and T. Miciński’s expressionist dramas.

In the novel, the positivist tendencies were initially continued, as in W. S. Reymont, who in “Chłopi” (4 volumes, 1904-09; German “The Peasants”) enforced naturalism with lyrical and symbolistic methods. S. Żeromski dealt with social and historical topics (“Ludzie bezdomni”, 1900, German “Die Heimatlosen”, and “Popioły”, 1904, German “In Schutt und Asche”). W. Berent dealt with Young Polish conceptions in »Próchno« (1903; German »noble rot«), likewise, but more rigorously, K. Irzykowski in »Pałuba« (1903).

The literary criticism was very important, especially in magazines such as »Życie« (Warsaw 1887–91, Krakow 1897–1900) and »Chimera« (Warsaw 1901 ff.), In which the new literary movement was promoted through translations and theoretical work. The critics S. Brzozowski and Irzykowski contributed significantly to overcoming the Young Polish aesthetic.

Polish Literature 2