Posen, Polish Poznan [ p ɔ ZNA n], capital of the province large, Poland, town circle and circle city, 52 m – 104 m above the sea level, at the Wartheland, (2018) 536,400 residents.
According to internetsailors, Poznan is the seat of the Catholic archbishopric; cultural and economic center of Greater Poland with Adam Mickiewicz University (founded in 1919), technical, medical, agricultural university, economic university, art university, music academy, several research institutes of the Polish Academy of Sciences, institute for German-Polish relations; Museums (including national, ethnological and city museums), several theaters, philharmonic orchestra (with famous boys’ and men’s choirs), botanical and zoological gardens. Several music festivals take place in Poznan every year.
The city is an important industrial and commercial center (with international trade fairs) and the center of economic cooperation between Germany and Poland. The most important branches of industry are mechanical engineering, plant and engine construction, electrotechnical, clothing and food industries, as well as the supply industry for vehicle construction (including tires), information technology; In the 1990s development into a commercial and financial center, strong growth in the service sector. Poznan is an important traffic junction on the Berlin – Warsaw route and has an airport (Ławica).
In the oldest part of the city on the Cathedral Island (Ostrów-Tumski), on the right bank of the Warta, a pre-Romanesque stone basilica with a square choir was built after 968 (destroyed in 1038, replaced by a Gothic two-tower basilica made of brick in the 14th / 15th centuries; between the Rebuilt in the 16th and 18th centuries, reconstructed after 1945 as it was in the 14th / 15th centuries). Not far from the cathedral are the Gothic Marienkirche (1442–48), the late Gothic singing school »Psałteria« (1512), the Archdiocese Museum (1518) and the Romanesque St. John’s Church (end of the 12th century, expanded in the 16th century). The center of the old town on the left bank of the Warthe is the market square with the town hall (today the town museum), an originally Gothic building (13th / 14th centuries), rebuilt in the Renaissance style from 1550–60 (arcades, attic, loggia; reconstructed from 1945–54). On the market square and next to the town hall, former shopkeepers with arcades and town houses (15th – 17th centuries; reconstructed after 1945), some of them with remarkable interior fittings (for example the White Eagle pharmacy) and palaces; i.a. Działyński Palace with a baroque-classicist facade (1773–81), classicist Hauptwache (1787), city scales (originally a Renaissance building, demolished in 1890; reconstructed after 1945).
Not far from the Old Town Market are the Arts and Crafts Museum (13th century, rebuilt in the 18th century; reconstructed in 1963), the Archaeological Museum in the former Górka Palace (16th century; destroyed 1945, restored 1960-67) and the classicist building of the Raczyński Library (1829). The baroque building of the parish church, formerly Jesuit church, was completed in 1711, next to the church the former Jesuit monastery. The former Gothic Dominican church (13th century) with an early Gothic west portal was rebuilt in the baroque style. The church of the Carmelite monastery is a late Gothic hall church (1465–70) with a baroque Chapel of Our Lady (1726) and a baroque altar; Baroque Franciscan church (1665–1728) with stucco work (17th / 18th century) and frescoes (around 1720). Of the buildings of the 20th century, it is worth mentioning theater buildings.
An early Slavic castle from the 8th / 9th centuries Established in the 19th century, Poznan was the seat of the Polish dukes in the 10th century, the seat of the first Polish bishop since 968 and the residence of the Dukes of Greater Poland since 1138. In 1253, German merchants built a new settlement under Magdeburg law. In the 15th century, the German element lost its predominance in the citizenry (until 1501, Silesian-style German was the document language). In the 16th century, the city, which had acquired the stacking rights in 1394, experienced an economic and cultural boom. In 1793 Posen became part of Prussia and in 1815 it became the capital of the “Grand Duchy” (Prussian province) of Poznan and the seat of the Archdiocese of Poznan-Gniezno. Due to the uprising of December 27, 1918, Poznan fell to Poland. In the Second World War (1939-45) again in German hands,
The Poznan Uprising (June 1956) led to the reshuffle of party and state offices (Polish history) in October 1956.