Russia Agriculture

In the food industry in 2002, 23.3 thousand enterprises were registered, where St. 1.5 million people The value of products manufactured by the industry in 2002 amounted to 822 billion rubles. 10.6 million tons of flour, 8.3 million tons of bread and bakery products, 895 thousand tons of cereals, 6.2 million tons of granulated sugar, 1186 thousand tons of vegetable oil, 278 thousand tons of animal oil, 139 million decaliters were produced vodka and alcoholic beverages, 702 million decaliters of beer, 1390 thousand tons of meat, 7.5 million tons of dairy products (in terms of milk), 1958 thousand tons of confectionery, 5606 million conditional cans of canned food. The largest enterprises of the industry are concentrated in the agricultural regions of the Central, Southern and Volga Federal Districts. This industry experienced significant growth from 1998 to 2002 (more than 65%). Besides, more than 10% of the labor force in industry is employed here, and it was here that a significant part of foreign investment flowed. The geographical position of Russia determines the uneven development of agriculture. In the regions of the black earth belt, the Volga region and the South of Russia, 2/3 of grain crops and potatoes and almost 100% of sunflower and sugar beets are produced. At the same time, most of the country is unsuitable for agriculture, so that agricultural land occupies only 13% of its territory. Crop production makes up slightly more than half of the value of all agricultural products: winter and spring wheat (55%), barley (23%), oats (8.2%) and rye (7.7%) predominate in its structure. In Russia, buckwheat, rice, peas, fodder crops are also grown; the production of flax, sugar beet, sunflower and vegetable growing (primarily potato growing). The transformational decline affected the capital-labor ratio of agriculture. Thus, the equipment with tractors in 2001 fell by more than 30% compared to 1990, and the amount of mineral and organic fertilizers applied by more than 6 times. The efficiency of agricultural production also remained low: the average wheat yield in Russia does not exceed 20 centners per hectare, while in Germany it is St. 70 c/ha, in the UK – about 80 c/ha. At the same time, in recent years, favorable weather conditions have contributed to good harvests, which allowed producers to receive steady profits and, even after a long break, resume bread exports, which exceeded imports (in 2001, 2.7 million and 738 thousand tons, respectively).

The main livestock products are cattle, as well as pigs, sheep, goats and poultry. By 2002, the number of livestock and poultry had more than halved compared to 1990, and that of sheep and goats had quadrupled (from 60 to 15 million heads). Correspondingly, the production of meat (from 9671 thousand tons on average in 1986-90 to 4451 thousand tons in 2001) and milk (from 1747 million to 884 million liters) fell by more than half. The demand of the population for these types of products is still largely met by imports. Due to the development of large poultry farms, egg production decreased somewhat less – from 48 billion to 35.2 billion eggs. The efficiency of livestock technologies also remains low: the average milk yield per cow in 2001 was 2651 liters per year.

In the 1990s the share of agricultural cooperative and state farms in the value of agricultural products decreased from 67% in 1992 to 42% in 2002. During the same years, the share of personal subsidiary farms increased from 31 to 54%, especially in the production of potatoes, fruit and berry crops, as well as sheep and goats, milk, eggs and honey. At the beginning of 2002, there were 265,000 farms in Russia, with 8% of arable land and 4.7% of pastures at their disposal. The total value of their products did not exceed 4% of gross agricultural output, but it was the farms that achieved the maximum growth rates. Thus, the physical volume of production of collective farms from 1998 to 2001 increased by 21%, and individual farms – by 90%.

At the beginning of 2002, there were more than 118,000 construction organizations operating in Russia, of which about 90% were private. They completed more than 2/3 of the total volume of construction work (in 1991, private developers accounted for only about 1/4 of all construction). In 2002, construction organizations of all forms of ownership completed work worth 915 billion rubles. in current prices, which in real terms is 2.7% more than in 2001, and 17% more than in 1995. The volume of construction work performed varies significantly from year to year, while the pace of housing construction in the country as a whole fell by 50 % compared with the 1980s, and there is practically no capital construction for industrial and industrial purposes.

According to topschoolsintheusa, Russia has developed rail, road, water (river and sea), pipeline and air modes of transport, as well as urban public transport (buses, trolleybuses, trams). In 6 cities (Moscow, St. Petersburg, Nizhny Novgorod, Novosibirsk, Samara and Yekaterinburg) there is a metro, the total length of lines is 406 km, 257 stations are open (at the beginning of 2003).

The main types of transport are rail and road, and the basis of the road infrastructure was laid by the beginning of the 20th century. Rail transport, with a relatively low density of communications (86 thousand km against 752 thousand km of roads), in 2002 transported more than 40% of the total volume of goods (in 1995 this figure did not reach 30%), while the share of road transport, on the contrary, fell from 40 to less than 20%. Road transport sustainably accounts for about half of all passenger traffic. From 1990 to 2001, total freight traffic fell by 60% and passenger traffic by 40%. In order to improve the efficiency of transportation and to attract investment, in May 2003 a package of laws was adopted on the reorganization of the railway industry and the creation of competition in the field of transportation.

Russia has developed postal, telephone, television and radio communications, and more recently the Internet. In 2002, the total volume of communication services rendered by all organizations amounted to 272.3 billion rubles. In 2002, communications enterprises sent 1.1 billion units. written correspondence, delivered 3.2 billion printed publications, 51 million postal money and 364 million pension transfers. In 2002, 30.3 million connected telephone sets were installed in Russia, of which 25.7 million were in private use (in apartments and houses), more than 20 million mobile phones, and 861 thousand registered Internet users. In addition, as of 2002, there were 22.5 thousand radio broadcasting stations and 6.9 thousand television stations in Russia, allowing 99% of the population to receive at least one, and 74% of the population – at least three television programs.

Russia Agriculture