Slovakia (National Flag)
The flag was officially adopted in 1992, when Slovakia’s old coat of arms was placed in the white-blue-red tricolor from 1848, so that it could be distinguished from the Russian flag. The colors are the Pan-Slavic. The weapon was part of the Hungarian weapon worn by the Slovaks in the 1800’s. changed a little, also in interpretation: the double crosses of the apostles Cyrillos and Methodius on three blue highs, symbolizing the country’s most important mountain ranges. Blue is Slovakia’s national color.
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The oldest finds date from the Middle Paleolithic; in the cave Prepostská tools have been found together with bones of woolly rhinoceros and cave lion. There are several finds from the Late Paleolithic, as obsidian in Eastern Slovakia was exploited and exchanged over greater distances. In approximately 25,000-year-old Venus statuette of mammoth bones is known from Moravany. approximately 5000 BC introduced agriculture with the ribbon ceramic culture. The Bronze Age began approximately 2200 BC, and soon fortified villages emerged on hilltops such as Barca in eastern Slovakia with orderly rows of houses. approximately 1800 BC Slovakia is covered by the Eastern High Grave culture. Around 1200 BC. the urn field culture began with larger urn burial fields; metalworking reached a peak with finely driven bronze vessels. The Iron Age began 700 BC, and from approximately 400 BC a Celtic imprint can be ascertained. approximately 100 BC fortified Celtic cities such as the Liptovská Mara with artisan quarters and a sacrificial site with human sacrifices emerged. A significant Celticoppidum was located in Bratislava, where many coins were minted. approximately 60 BC Bratislava was destroyed by the Daker king Burebistas. Then Germanic finds are seen, which are linked to the Marcomoduus Markomanian chief. In the centuries after the birth of Christ, Germanic settlements arose, where quads and longobards are represented. The Romans also invaded Slovakia, with the border fortress Devín, which approximately 400 were taken over by the Germans.
- AbbreviationFinder: Check three-letter abbreviation for each country in the world, such as SVK which represents the official name of Slovakia.
According to a2zgov, the first state formation on Slovak territory was the Great Moorish Empire, which in the 800-t. with a focus on Southern Moravia and Western Slovakia became a fairly developed society. Christianity gained ground and a Slavic liturgical written language was created. The kingdom went under about 907 when the Magyarstribes invaded and settled in the region. From about 1000 to 1918, Slovakia was part of the Kingdom of Hungary. The population of Slovakia consisted predominantly of Slovaks, but many valley areas were almost depopulated during the Mongol storm of 1241, and to strengthen the area, German colonists were invited in. Around the year 1300, there were over 30 royally privileged cities on Slovak territory, and the following century was a period of prosperity for the area, due to rich gold finds. During the Hussite wars in Bohemia and Moravia, Hussite army units from 1428 invaded Slovakia several times, where large groups of mercenaries settled. The teachings of the Hussites did not take root in Slovakia, but culturally the contact with the Czechs became very important when the linguistically close Czech written language in Slovak imprint found local application. The Battle of Mohács in 1526 passed to the Hungarian Crown the Habsburgs. The Ottomans soon occupied most of Hungary, and only the Slovak territory remained under Habsburg control. Bratislava (Pressburg) therefore became the coronation city and home of the Hungarian Reichstag. In the 1500’s. broke through the Reformation throughout Hungary, in Slovakia especially in the Lutheran version. The Habsburgs’ management of the area was harsh, and after 1618 they sought to combine their Catholic counter-reformation with absolutism, leading to numerous uprisings against the monarchy. The poor control of the area by the Habsburgs meant that many Protestant refugees found refuge here.
Hungary was a multi-ethnic kingdom with Latin as the administrative language, but in the 1700’s. the first signs of ethnic-national tensions between Hungarians and Slovaks were seen. Historical arguments about the right to land began to be debated, and numerous defenses were published for the Slovak language and people (see Slovak). Gradually, both Catholic and Protestant patriots realized that a national agitation required a written language, in the light of an increasingly militant Hungarian nationalism, and in 1843 created L ‘. Štúr the language norm that still largely applies. In the year of the revolution of 1848, a Slovak assembly demanded linguistic rights in school and administration, but the Hungarian liberals, who wanted to create both political and ethnic unity throughout the Hungarian kingdom, fought Slovak nationalism. Until 1867 providedViennathe weak Slovak national movement some protection, and in 1861 the Slovaks presented a national program demanding the recognition of the Slovaks as a people and Slovak autonomy. When the Habsburg Empire was transformed into Austria-Hungary in 1867, the Hungarians gained free hands in domestic politics, and they embarked on a fierce policy of starvation. Pga. the massive repression, the Slovak intellectual elites remained small, and especially in Eastern Slovakia, the national movement completely lacked a foothold. No real political program could be formulated, and many took refuge in pan-Slavic dreams of Russia as the liberator of the slaves. The outbreak of World War I in 1914 paralyzed the infancy of Slovak political life, and until 1918 the future of Slovakia was discussed more outside the country than at home.Tomáš Masaryk together with Slovak emigrant organizations for the same idea.
Slovakia becomes part of Czechoslovakia
It was not until 30.10.1918, two days after the proclamation of Czechoslovakia in Prague, that Slovak patriots gathered in the town of Turčianský Svätý Martin, where in a statement they demanded self-determination and professed a Czechoslovak national and political cohabitation. The government in Prague chose to govern the new state centrally; this policy initially received Slovak support, but the accompanying Czechoslovak ideology, which claimed that Czechs and Slovaks were two branches of the same people, as well as Czech liberal norms and anti-Catholicism aroused resentment among Slovak Catholics in particular. Many therefore supported Andrej HlinkasSlovak People’s Party, which demanded Slovak autonomy. Culturally, the interwar period meant a heyday for the Slovaks, but economically, Slovakia remained underdeveloped, and with the depression of the 1930’s, dissatisfaction and demands for autonomy grew.
After the Munich Agreement of 1938, Slovakia received in October s.å. autonomy, and in November all Slovak parties gathered in a national unity party led by Jozef Tiso. When Adolf Hitler wanted to occupy Bohemia and Moravia in March 1939, he ordered Tiso to proclaim an independent state, which happened on March 14, 1939. An authoritarian Slovak state was built under close German control. Anti-Jewish laws were enforced, and during the war the Slovaks actively contributed to the Nazi Holocaust. Slovakia declared war on the Soviet Union and later the United States and Britain, and as dependence on Germany became increasingly apparent, the regime lost much of its popularity. A resistance movement arose in the autumn of 1943, and in August 1944 an uprising began, which was only defeated by the Germans after two months of heavy fighting. Politically, the non-fascist Slovaks supported a restoration of Czechoslovakia, but now with the recognition that Czechs and Slovaks were two different peoples. The Czech leaders with Edvard Benešat the head bowed reluctantly, and from the restoration of Czechoslovakia in 1945 to the communist takeover in 1948, the Communists exploited the national antagonisms to weaken the other parties. The Slovak communists then had some autonomy, but after 1948 a strict centralism was reintroduced, and many Slovak party members, Gustáv Husák, imprisoned for bourgeois nationalism.
The communist era brought Slovakia real economic progress as the country was industrialized and urbanized. But dissatisfaction with centralism was great and through the 1960’s became a driving force in Slovak intellectuals’ demands for liberalization and federalism. The pressure culminated in January 1968, when the Slovak party secretary Alexander Dubček replaced Antonín Novotný as party leader. After the Prague Spring, which was also a Slovak affair, Husák, as a Slovak party leader, deftly exploited the Czechoslovak opposition to create a platform against the Czech Reform Communists. In October 1968, Czechoslovakia was transformed into a federation. Federalization promoted the development of a local Slovak bureaucratic elite, and the two parts of the country lived largely separate lives.
When the Velvet Revolution in November 1989 opened for democracy, the two countries developed politically separately, each with its own national party system. A majority in both countries wanted a continued common state, but as no agreement could be reached on the terms, Czechoslovakia was divided on 1 January 1993.
The first year of the new Slovak state was marked by political turmoil, mainly due to the authoritarian leadership of Vladimír Mečiar and the increasingly clear mix of political and economic interests. Restrictions on the rights of the Hungarian minority also provoked much criticism. Slovakia, therefore, like its neighbors Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic, did not join NATO in 1999, nor did it, for political reasons, become the first group of EU candidates.
The 1998 parliamentary elections took place in a highly polarized atmosphere and resulted in a change of power, as a very broad coalition of right-wing and left-wing parties could form a majority government under Mikuláš Dzurindaaround Mečiar’s HZDS party. The government quickly managed to improve relations with the EU so that Slovakia could become a member at the same time as the other Central and Eastern European candidate countries in May 2004. So. Slovakia joined NATO. A number of reforms were also implemented financially, including a privatization of the banking sector that was to make the country attractive to foreign investors, which was largely successful. The car industry in Slovakia in particular grew rapidly. After the 2002 election, Dzurinda was able to continue as head of government, now at the head of a pure right-wing government that implemented a string of radical reforms, not least the introduction of a flat tax of 19%. The policy created nice growth rates, but also increased economic inequality. Unemployment was reduced only slightly. The election in June 2006 therefore gave a victory to Robert Ficos (b. 1964) Social Democrat-oriented party Smer, which, citing the results of the Czech Social Democrats, promised better social security and improvements in the conditions of the weaker groups. After the election, Smer formed a majority government together with the LS-HZDS and the nationalist SNS. In 2012, Smer gained an absolute majority after the parliamentary elections. In 2014, Fico lost the presidential election to independent candidate Andrej Kiska.