Solidarity between the Papacy and the Empire 2

And he succeeded in having his cousin Brunone of Carinthia elected, Gregory V: the first German to occupy the papal throne, at a time when Germany was accentuating its orientation towards Italy, moving its center towards Italy. And from him, shortly after, Otto had the imperial crown in Rome; together with him he tried to give the city an administration that would ensure respect for the rights of the pope and the emperor. Since in Rome there was, more or less subordinate to the pope, a citizen body that was taking effect. And it too was a manifestation of the tendency to revive old titles and offices. Otto returned to Rome at the beginning of 998, invoked, once again, by the pontiff, after Crescentius, having risen again, had taken possession of the government of Rome, confiscated church property and income, placed another pope, a native of the Greek Italy, in place of Gregory V. This time, the young emperor proceeded with ruthless energy. In this repression he also had part of his citizenship, which, as always, was divided and discordant. Since, a close bond seemed to be re-established between the emperor and the Roman people, as well as between them and the imperial pontiff. Otto did not abandon Rome, as he had done in 996. The thought or intention of re-establishing the seat of the emperor in Rome, which had already flashed several times after Charlemagne, now seemed close to being implemented. The pontiff must have seen in the proximity of the prince a surer guarantee for himself and for the Church; the Romans, the principle of the rebirth of the city The pontiff must have seen in the proximity of the prince a surer guarantee for himself and for the Church; the Romans, the principle of the rebirth of the city The pontiff must have seen in the proximity of the prince a surer guarantee for himself and for the Church.

According to elaineqho, son of a Greek mother, initiated into classical and Byzantine culture, he had nurtured in himself feelings of great admiration for the Roman and Carolingian idea of ​​an empire that was not just a name, a crown, but an organism in itself, provided of its own content. Renovatio Imperii Romanorum bears inscribed the lead bull of the diploma of 22 April 998 at the Pavia monastery of S. Pietro in Ciel d’Oro: an empire which, in the intentions of Ottone or, for him, of his tutor Gerberto di Aurillac, must or could also include the East, always with Italy and Rome at the center and at the head. In this way, the Roman world and the Germanic world came even closer, after the bitter contrast of the early times. And the Roman world and the Christian world approached. Because Otto was not only taken and dazzled by these ghosts of antiquity, in which he was nevertheless like the foretaste of a new era, but also by a living religious passion. Alongside Gerbert, who had become Pope Sylvester II, he dreamed of a close solidarity between the papacy and the empire, for the better fulfillment of the moral destinies of mankind; indeed he collaborated with it, like it with him, to the government, together, of the Church and the State. And yet who, in this kind of diarchy, dominates, has the initiative, imprint of himself on the whole is the emperor. The pontiff almost assumes the role of his minister in spiritual matters. Otto wants security and prosperity for the Church: but also, and especially, so that “our empire may flourish and the power of the Roman people may spread”.

This placing of the emperor almost at the head of the Church is to be considered a p0 ′ as the culmination of that historical process which led the bishops to high civil and political functions and made them, in a certain sense, the prince’s officials, despite the fact that inevitable tendency, already visible in the bishops of Rome, to consider those functions as their own. And it results in the further rise of the bishops, in the civil and political field. It results in an assiduous effort by the prince to protect the assets and rights of the churches from the assaults of feudalism, now also of small feudalism, which seeks to make the offices and benefits and the leasehold land inheritance and property. Gerberto, former abbot of Bobbio and later archbishop of Ravenna before being pope, had had a lot to do with usurpers. And certainly at his suggestion, Ottone III issued a constitution from Pavia in 998 which limited the concession of ecclesiastical lands to the life of the concessionaire, whether or not the bishop was free to renew it to his successor. Once the bishops govern, for the emperor, cities and committees, it is necessary that they do not lose, with the lands and incomes, also the ability to carry out state tasks, provide military contributions, restore the city walls, take care of the bridges. This hurt more and more big and small gentlemen. And in the feudal society between the century. The tenth and sixteenth centuries harbored a dull spirit of opposition to such a policy of aiding and abetting the bishops, brought to a climax by the Saxon house. It was clearly seen in Piedmont, where Arduino marquis d’Ivrea, Arduino the “episcopicide”, great enemy and hammer of bishops.

Solidarity between the Papacy and the Empire 3