Somalia (National Flag)
Somalia (National Flag), The flag was officially adopted in 1954. At that time, the country was another UN mandate, and therefore the colors blue and white were chosen from the UN flag. The star symbolizes unity, and its five branches represent the five areas in which Somalis live: former British and Italian Somaliland, Djibouti and parts of Ethiopia and Kenya.
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According to a2zgov, probably the northern and eastern coastal areas of Somalia constitute the Point mentioned in ancient Egyptian writings. From 600- to 1000-h. Arab and Persian trading stations were established along the coasts of Somalia. They served as Islamic sultanates, for example in the port cities of Mogadishu, Kismayu and Berbera. Exports from Somalia mainly consisted of slaves and luxury goods such as rubber arabic and ostrich feathers. Gradually, Islam also became prevalent among the Somali population of the inland, who were mainly camel nomads.
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After rivalry through the 1800’s. between Ethiopia and the European colonial powers, the Somali area in the 1880’s was divided into British Somaliland in the north, Italian Somaliland in the south and French Somaliland in present-day Djibouti, while the Ogaden areacame under Ethiopian control. The British met armed resistance from Somali rebels led by national hero Sayyid Muhammad ibn Abdallah Hassan (1864-1920, also known as “The Crazy Mullah”), who declared holy war in 1899. The resistance struggle lasted until Hassan’s death. Italian troops occupied British Somaliland in 1940. The Italians established a joint administration, which the British, who conquered the entire Somali area near Djibouti, in 1941-42. In 1950, Ethiopia regained its Somali territories, while Italy took over the administration of the former Italian Somaliland for a ten-year term as UN mandate.
The Somali Youth League (SYL), the leading political nationalist movement, founded in 1943, won the first free elections in 1959 for the British Assembly in British Somaliland, which became independent the following year. At the same time, the Italian mandate expired and on July 1, the two parts of the country were effectively united under the name of the Republic of Somalia with Abd al-Rashid Ali Shirmake (1919-69) as the first prime minister. However, it was not until the following year that the Act on the Association was formally adopted and confirmed by a referendum. In 1967, Shirmake became president with Muhammad Ibrahiim Igal (1928-2002) as new prime minister. However, the many clan-based parties destabilized political life; in 1969, Shirmake was assassinated and shortly thereafter the military took power in a coup led by Muhammad Siyaad Barre. He established a one-party regime with the Somalia Revolutionary Socialist Party as the only allowed party and banned public statements of clan identity. As part of the national unity efforts, in 1972, Somali replaced Italian, English and Arabic as the country’s official language. Somalia was an ally of the Soviet Union from 1970, but when the Soviet Union supported Ethiopia in the battle for Ogaden, which Somalia claimed, it broke up. In 1974, the country became a member of the Arab League.
|1960-67||Aden Abdullah Osman|
|1967-69||Abd al-Rashid Ali Shirmake|
|1969-91||Muhammad Siyaad Barre|
|1995-96||Muhammad Farrah Aidid|
|1996-98||Hussein Muhammad Farrah|
|2000-04||Abdiqasim Salad Hasan|
|2004-09||Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmad|
|2009-12||Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmad|
|2012-17||Hassan Sheikh Mohamud|
|2017||Muhammad Abdullahi Muhammad|
In 1979, Somalia got a new constitution; Siyaad Barre, who ruled with almost dictatorial powers from 1984, was re-elected president in 1986 and survived a coup attempt in 1987. From the late 1980’s, opposition to him and his Marehan clan’s dominance grew. Both the Ishaaq clans Somali National Movement (SNM) in NV-Somalia and the Majerteen clans Somali Salvation Democratic Front (SSDF) in NE-Somalia fought against Siyaad Barre, whose widespread oppression of the opposition, among others. expressed in serious human rights violations committed by the military and the secret police. In 1990, a number of other clans joined the fight against the regime in Mogadishu, which was conquered the following year by the United Somali Congress (USC), which was mainly supported byThe Hawiye clans. Siyaad Barre fled the country and a transitional government was formed. Shortly thereafter, internal conflict erupted between the Hawiye clans, especially Muhammad Farah Aideed’s sub-clan, Habr Gedir, and Ali Mahdi’s Abgal, who were given control of each part of Mogadishu. The civil war continued here and in central and southern Somalia, which was simultaneously hit by drought. According to the UN, which launched a comprehensive humanitarian intervention in 1991, up to 350,000 Somalis died in 1991-92. Lack of security and conflicts with the clan militia caused the UN to interrupt the intervention in 1995, but relief and reconstruction work continued in many places, including under UN auspices.
In early 2000, Somalia continued without a single national government. The SNM, which in 1991 gained control of most of northwestern Somalia, declared unilaterally the area of independence under the name of the Republic of Somaliland, where peace has prevailed since 1997 when Muhammad Ibrahiim Igal was elected president. In northeastern Somalia, where the SSDF gained control in 1991, the Majerteen clans dominate, and here too the development has been relatively peaceful. In 1998, a civil administration was set up with Abdullaahi Yusuf Ahmad as president and the area was renamed the Somali Republic of Puntland; however, the government has emphasized that unlike Somaliland, it wants a unified Somalia.
In central and southern Somalia there have been scattered initiatives to set up regional administrations, but plans have often been hampered by clan struggles; In these areas and not least in Mogadishu, lawlessness continues to be widespread.
At a conference in Djibouti in 2000, a transitional government was established and the same year Abdiqasim Salad Hasan was appointed president. However, from the outset, the transitional government had difficulties in functioning. It was immediately ignored by the leaders of the Somaliland breakaway republic and by the self-proclaimed autonomous territory of Puntland. Also in the rest of the country, the rule of warlords continued, including in the capital Mogadishu. In 2004, a new transitional government was reached and former Puntland leader Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmad was appointed president, but his government failed to move the seat of government to the capital Mogadishu, mainly because of the lack of security. After protracted battles against US-backed secular warlords, a militia under the Union of Islamic Courts seized power in the capital and large parts of southern Somalia in June 2006, including the area in the southwest, which in 2002 had declared itself an autonomous area. Somaliland, unlike the other parts of Somalia, was calm. The area leader 1993-2002 was Muhammad Ibrahim Egal (1928-2002). He was succeeded by Vice President Dahir Riyale Kahin (b. 1952), has continued Egal’s attempt to gain international recognition of Somaliland as an independent state. In 2001, a democratic constitution was adopted with, among other things, a multi-party system, and in 2002, Democratic local elections were held, followed in 2003 by a presidential election that Kahin narrowly won, and in 2005 by parliamentary elections. In contrast, in 2001, Puntland was thrown into a battle over government power when a conference of clan leaders appointed a new leader, Jama Ali Jama. This election was not acknowledged by the former leader Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmad and fighting ensued between their supporters. In contrast, in 2001, Puntland was thrown into a battle over government power when a conference of clan leaders appointed a new leader, Jama Ali Jama. This election was not acknowledged by the former leader Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmad and fighting ensued between their supporters. In contrast, in 2001, Puntland was thrown into a battle over government power when a conference of clan leaders appointed a new leader, Jama Ali Jama. This election was not acknowledged by the former leader Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmad and fighting ensued between their supporters.
The progress of the Union of Islamic Courts prompted Ethiopia to enter Somalia in the fall of 2006; together with the Somali Transitional Government, in early 2007, the Ethiopian army had displaced the Islamists from all major cities in the country, thus enabling the government to occupy the capital Mogadishu. Also in early 2007, the United States launched air strikes against forces claimed to be linked to the al-Qaeda terrorist network in the southern part of the country. However, the Islamist grew in strength. The al-Shabab movement, which is a fundamentalist Sunni Muslim militia much like the Taliban and has links to al-Qaeda, has since 2008 taken control of most of southern Somalia, governed by a very harsh interpretation of Islamic law.
In 2009, Sharif Sheikh Ahmed was elected president of a transitional government. He is supported by the African Union peacekeeping force AMISOM and since 2011 has slowly withdrawn al-Shabab. In August 2012, a new parliament was sworn in; however, the election of a new president was postponed. In September 2012, elections were held, for the first time in many years on Somali land; the victor of the election became university lecturer Hassan Sheikh Mohamud. In November, a new government was nominated; among the ministers is a female foreign minister.
The country continues to suffer from severe unrest with terrorist threats and acts of war. The crime is extensive and there are, among other things, risk of abducting Westerners.
In large parts of the Red Sea and the western parts of the Indian Ocean, pirates based in Somalia have become a problem. International naval forces, including with Danish participation, has been sent to the area in an attempt to combat piracy.
In 2011, Somalia was again hit by extreme drought, and the UN declared famine in two southern regions. In some areas, over 50% of the population is malnourished.