Sudan Human Geography

According to threergroup, the population of Sudan forms an ethnic mosaic among the richest and most composite in Africa; the various minorities make up almost a quarter of the entire population (23.3%). In particular, it is the result of the contact, which took place already in prehistoric times, of black people – originating in the country – and of the arrival of white people, europoids; The Semitic contributions have been decisive especially in more recent times due to the expansion towards the S of the Arabs. Generally speaking, there are also with regard to man, ethnic differences in the latitudinal sense; from N to S the men, their activities, the shape of the villages vary. In general, to the N, beyond the 10th parallel, of a Saharan and sub-Saharan environment, the Arab or Arabized populations predominate (49%), divided into two large groups: the jaali in the Nubian region (but along the Nile, from Wādī Halfā ‘ in Merowe, there are elements of the ancient black ethnic group), the Nubians (8%), the Juhayna in the central area. The most representative tribes are those of the kababish, the hauawir, the messiriye and others generically called baggara (“Vaccari”). For the most part, these are breeding peoples who make seasonal migrations from N to S along routes that lead cattle to pastures and wells. In north-eastern Sudan, between the Nile and the Red Sea, however, there is an ethnically distinct area, represented by the so-called Cushitic populations (a Hamitic branch, mainly on a linguistic basis, which derives its name from the ancient kingdom of Kush): they are generically known as the beja (or begia, 6%), but include different tribes (hadendoa, bisharin, merci amer) who practice nomadism in the eastern mountainous region.

In Darfur there are other tribes of different origins that the Arabization has left immune: some, such as the for (or fur) of the Jabal Marrah, are ancient Sudanese populations with paleonegritic features (the isolated environment of the massif has allowed the conservation of archaic characters), others are a mixture of Sudanese and Saharanians (zaghawa), similar to the tebus of the Sahara. AS of the 10th parallel, we enter the real African world, above all the domain of the Nilotic populations, with unmistakable somatic characteristics (tall stature, almost skeletal structure, very dark skin); are represented by large pastoral, semi-nomadic tribes who raise cattle: the dinka (11%), the nuer, the shilluk, the anuaks, who live along the rivers and swamps of the Sudd. The ethnic framework, extremely complex, is completed by niloto-Hamites, ie with europoidi traces, like cheaters, the Lotuko, the turkana etc., Allocated between the upper Nile and southeastern reliefs extremes, while at W of the upper course of the river, up to the ridges that form the watershed with the Congo River, there are Paleosudanese populations and the great Sudanese group of Azande (sandé, 2.7%). The first census dates back to 1956 and recorded 10.3 million residents, of which approx. 4 million Arab or Arabized populations, 3 million of the southern groups (Nilotic, Niloto-Hamitic, Sudanese), 1.3 million of the Western groups (for etc.), 650,000 Beja, 580,000 Nubians, etc.; there were also large (over 250,000 residents) non-African minorities, composed mainly of Cypriots, Syrians and others, generally engaged in commercial activities. Subsequently, the population was estimated to grow with an annual rate of first 3%, then (1970-75) of 2.5% and (1985-95) of 3.1%; the 1983 census brought the Sudanese population to over 20.5 million. However, the south of the country, now independent, was subjected between 1960 and 1970 to a policy of extermination by the central government, which forced the exodus several hundred thousand people.

In turn, numerous refugees took refuge in Sudan from neighboring countries, who in 1987 had reached 975,000 (a third of which came from Ethiopia). The density is 22.76 residents / km². The population, however, is unevenly distributed and in recent years the contrasts have accentuated: in fact approx. half of the population is concentrated on 15% of the territory, with higher densities along the course of the Nile. Regional gaps and deep socio-economic differences between the various regions are also at the origin of the most recent internal conflict, which broke out in 2003 in Darfur. The continuous migratory flows towards the cities led to 34%, in 2015, the urbanization rate. Natural conditions have led to different lifestyles, with a prevalence of sedentary peasant life in the central north, nomadic traditions from cattle herders in the humid savannah of the southwest and in the southern marshes and, still nomadic life in the steppe of the northwest and in the hills of the Red Sea. The capital Khartoum hosts all the main activities together with the nearby Umm Durmān (Omdurman) and Khartoum North, an eminently industrial district, with which it forms a gigantic agglomeration of over 4.5 million residents. After Khartoum, the main center is Būr Sūdān, the country’s maritime outlet, connected by rail to the capital, now equipped with a modern port to replace the old one of Sawākin (still nomadic life in the steppe of the northwest and in the hills of the Red Sea. The capital Khartoum hosts all the main activities together with the nearby Umm Durmān (Omdurman) and Khartoum North, an eminently industrial district, with which it forms a gigantic agglomeration of over 4.5 million residents. After Khartoum, the main center is Būr Sūdān, the country’s maritime outlet, connected by rail to the capital, now equipped with a modern port to replace the old one of Sawākin ( still nomadic life in the steppe of the northwest and in the hills of the Red Sea. The capital Khartoum hosts all the main activities together with the nearby Umm Durmān (Omdurman) and Khartoum North, an eminently industrial district, with which it forms a gigantic agglomeration of over 4.5 million residents. After Khartoum, the main center is Būr Sūdān, the country’s maritime outlet, connected by rail to the capital, now equipped with a modern port to replace the old one of Sawākin (Suakin). Wad Madanī is the major center of Al-Jazīrah and its cotton activities.

Sudan Human Geography