As a consequence of its great extension in the meridian sense, Sweden belongs to different vegetation zones. The southernmost region belongs to the Middle-European zone of broad-leaved trees, most of the region north of Dal belongs to the conifer zone of the northern hemisphere, while the higher and northernmost regions are distinguished by vegetation whose characters resemble those of the arctic tundra. As a result of the differences in climate, the forests of the southern part of Sweden have a different composition from those of the north. We distinguish a beech region characteristic of the southern and southwestern parts of the broad-leaved area (Scania, Blekinge, Halland, etc.), a southern and a northern region of conifers, and, as a transition area to the high mountain, the birch region. The actual high mountain vegetation, the high mountain prairie, is devoid of trees. In the five regions listed below, the differences in the character of the vegetation are so essential that they influence the whole landscape. These are: 1. the high mountain region; 2. the birch region; 3. the northern region of conifers; 4. the southern region of conifers; 5. the region of beech woods. the northern region of conifers; 4. the southern region of conifers; 5. the region of beech woods. the northern region of conifers; 4. the southern region of conifers; 5. the region of beech woods.
The lower limit of the forest in the high mountain region is located in northern Dalecarlia (Dalarna) at 800-900 msm, in northern Lapland at 400-600 msm.The birch region is characterized by a variety of white birch (Betula odorata f. subalpine) and forms a strip of varying depth underneath the nakedness of the high mountain. Below the birch region begins the conifer region, in which two trees dominate, the pinastro and the fir, which prevail in the character of the Swedish landscape. The north and south half of this region are divided from each other by a natural limit corresponding to the northern limit of the oak (about 60 ° lat. N.).
The northern conifer zone forms the largest forest region of Sweden. There are endless areas covered with forests and the uniform expanse is interrupted only by isolated swamps, rivers and lakes. Only in certain coastal areas, such as in Jämtland and in the torpedo-forming regions of Dalarna, has the forest yielded largely to agriculture. On the other hand, in the southern region of conifers, the mighty forest mantle had to yield very large extensions to crops. The large clay plains in the Mälar basin, in the Narke depression, the originally forested lowlands of Västergötland and Östergötland now rank among the most important agricultural regions in the country. In the southern region of conifers there are also a number of deciduous trees, such as oaks, ash, elm, lime, maple, hazelnut, sloe, hawthorn, etc. For the fir there is a southwestern border, mainly due to historical populations, which passes through southern Bohus, southwestern Vastergötland, the interior of Halland, southwestern part of Smaland, northern Scania and southern Blekinge. Beyond this region begins the birch region, where the land occupied by trees is very small for the development of agriculture. northern Scania and southern Blekinge. Beyond this region begins the birch region, where the land occupied by trees is very small for the development of agriculture. northern Scania and southern Blekinge. Beyond this region begins the birch region, where the land occupied by trees is very small for the development of agriculture. For Sweden 2015, please check dentistrymyth.com.
The most common species of conifers are Pinus silvestris and Picea excelsa ; the birch Betula verrucosa and the already mentioned B. smell. The Quercus pedunculata Sweden Dal and falus silvatica in the provinces of Sweden and OS. they form smaller woods mixed with conifers. The flora of the brambles is characterized by different species of Salix, Rubus, Rosa, Prunus spinosa, etc.; the flora of the marshes consists of bushy formations of Ciperaceae, Graminaceae and a few other Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons. In the moors there are vast formations of Ericaceae and especially of Calluna vulgaris which predominates there; large numbers of species live in the prairies.
In the Swedish flora, Gymnosperms represent the fifteenth part of the total number of vascular plants; instead Angiosperms abound and 75% of these are represented by Dicotyledons. There are 99 families of Angiosperms and the richest are the Compote (160 species), then the Graminaceae, the Ciperaceae, the Cruciferae, the Papilionaceae, etc., in all 1475 species that are of foreign origin, immigrated to the country from Sweden to E. after the glacial period. Of these, about 400 extend as far as the polar region and in the southern regions they rise to the high mountains like alpine plants; however, about 70 polar species are widespread throughout the country. The endemic forms are few and represented by varieties.
The coniferous region in northern Sweden is one of the most important on earth for the exploitation of forest products. From the so-called evaluation of state forests carried out in the years 1923-1929 on the initiative of the state, very exact data can be obtained on the forests. According to this grandiose inventory, the country’s forest region rises to 23 million hectares, or 56.5% of the total area. The quantity of wood, excluding the bark, rises to 1417 million cubic meters, of which 41% of pines, 42% of firs and 17% of broad-leaved trees. The state-owned appraisal showed that the forest area is smaller, but the quantity of wood is greater than previously believed and that the annual increase corresponds approximately to consumption.
The forests belonged to 259,586 different owners in 1930; the peasants owned 9.9 million hectares, the companies 5.9 million, the state 5.2 million and the landowners 0.7 million.