Syria Economic Overview
Basic data
Capital Damascus
Population 20.38 million
Language Arabic (Official)
Religion Islam (87%, of which 74% Sunni Islam, 13% Shia Islam), Christianity (10%), Druze (3%)
State system parliamentary republic
Head of State Bashar al-Assad
Head of government Hussain Arnús
Currency name Syrian pound (SYP)
Time shift +1 hour (in summer +2 hours)
Nominal GDP (billion USD) 21.3
Economic growth (%) -2.2
Inflation (%) 66.1
Unemployment (%) 60.0

The Syrian Arab Republic is a declaratory republic with a unicameral parliament and a presidential system of government with the existence of the position of prime minister. The current president, Bashar al-Assad, has been president since 2000 and defended his current post in the presidential elections that took place on 05/26/2021, and his presidential mandate was therefore extended for another seven years. The current Syrian government is chaired by Hussain Arnús, appointed by the president to his post in August 2020. In the Syrian unicameral parliament, the so-called National Progressive Front has a majority, which mainly consists of representatives of the Syrian Socialist Baath Party and 11 other smaller parties. According to the current constitution from 2012, which introduced, among other things, a plurality of political parties, the Syrian parliament is the main legislative body. However, the Syrian president himself also holds an important legislative function,

During 2020, the Syrian economy has been steadily sinking to its absolute bottom since 2011. Systematic corruption, coupled with an inefficient quasi-capitalist-socialist economic model, along with the collapse of economic activity, the real purchasing power of Syrians, the political and economic isolation of the country, the impact of the ongoing conflict and non-fulfillment of promises by foreign partners (e.g. the promise of Chinese investment), means the economy has fallen by 60% compared to 2011. It is estimated that the Syrian currency (SYP – Syrian pound) has lost 97% of its pre-war value, while the poverty rate rose to 90%. This trend of increasing economic atrophy can be expected to continue in 2021. In 2020, the central government had efforts to provide essential services and keep supply chains active, however, through the weakening of state institutions (except those of a security nature) and limited access to oil fields and grain fields located for the most part outside the territorial reach of Damascus, there has been and will be a deepening of budget imbalances, an inability to provide key services, all in a situation that increases with food and energy uncertainties. The unfavorable development also underscores the dependence on foreign capital at the hands of its allies such as Iran and Russia. The impact of existing sanctions and the introduction of new sanctions in particular (USA/Ceasar Act) caused, in addition to deepening payment and overall financial inability, also a slowing down of dynamics or a halt to the normalization of relations, both at the bilateral/regional level and at the international level. The hope of the central government,

According to allcountrylist, there is a significant shortage of practically all goods on the Syrian trade market, however, a potential Czech exporter may encounter two significant obstacles – the still valid EU and US economic sanctions regimes by the US administration, which have recently been expanded to include the already mentioned Caesar Act, and another unfavorable factor , which relates in particular to some specific commodities or entire economic segments, is the presence of established business groups connected to the current Syrian government, when in essence a monopoly on the supply of specific goods arises in some areas. Nevertheless, the Syrian market is commercially very interesting with considerable potential – currently the most promising segment is the healthcare segment in all possible aspects (technology, medical equipment, water management (drinking and waste water treatment plants, etc.) and construction.

Practical telephone numbers (emergency services, police, firemen, information lines, etc.)

First aid: 110

Police: 112

Firefighters: 113

General information line: 147

Important web links and contacts

ZÚ SAR in the Czech Republic:

Website of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs:

Ministry of Industry website:

Ministry of Interior website:

Ministry of Petroleum website:

Ministry of Health website:

Website of the Ministry of Justice:

Website of the Ministry of Higher Education:

Ministry of Education website:

Ministry of Agriculture website:

Ministry of Finance/Economics website:

Website of the Ministry of Culture:

Ministry of Water Resources website:

Website of the Ministry of Electricity/Energy:

Ministry of Transport website:

Ministry of Tourism website:

E-Government website, Eng.:

FB page of the President of the SAR:

Red Cross branch in SAR:

Syria Economic Overview