Polish Philosophy

Polish Philosophy

Polish philosophy, collective term for the philosophical theories and systems that began in the 13th century. Many thinkers received their training at Italian universities (in the 15th century also in Prague and Vienna); they wrote their works in Latin. Up to the 18th century the scholasticism of the influential Jesuit order was formative. In the 19th century, an Aristotelian-Stoic Renaissance philosophy and the Reformation movement of the Polish Brothers (Socinians)…

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Polish Music

Polish Music

Polish music, term for the music of the Polish language and cultural area. The oldest musical tradition can be found in the folk song, which is still alive today and whose peculiarities include five-step scales (pentatonic), church keys, asymmetrical rhythms and short melodic formations. There is evidence of the dance song as early as 1100, which has remained the predominant song genre until modern times. Folk dances such as polonaise,…

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Polish Literature Part IV

Polish Literature 4

After 1989 – between continuity and change The separation of Poland from the Soviet sphere of influence and the transition to democracy and a market economy in 1989 brought Polish literature, similar to the literatures of other states of the former Eastern Bloc, the final elimination of censorship and political and ideological constraints. With the achievement of full sovereignty in Poland, according to aristmarketing, a cultural practice that had existed…

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Polish Literature Part III

Polish Literature 2 3

Interwar period (1918-39) After the establishment of statehood, ideological and artistic contradictions emerged more clearly in literary groups and were more sharply expressed in literature, with aesthetic issues predominating. In addition to the older poets B. Leśmian and L. Staff, new groups of poets formed around magazines: for example »Skamander« (1920 ff.), Who advocated everyday language and content in poetry and united poets such as J. Tuwim and A. Słonimski,…

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Polish Literature Part II

Polish Literature 2

At the same time sensitive works (ballads, idylls, novels) appeared. Brodziński introduced the Polish public to Romanticism through his treatise “O klasyczności i romantyczności” (1818). The interest in history, folklore and feeling favored the emergence of romanticism, which was brought about by »Ballady i romanse« (1822; German »Balladen und Romanzen«) as well as »Grażyna« (1823; German) and »Dziady« (parts 2 and 4, 1823; German “Die Totenfeier”) by A. Mickiewicz had…

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Polish Literature Part I

Polish Literature 1

Polish literature, collective name for the earliest evidence written in Latin from the 11th century. Polish language monuments are only known from the 14th century. Polish literature is divided into two main currents: the Old Polish Epoch (12th to mid-18th centuries), which includes the Middle Ages, Renaissance and Baroque, and the more recent Polish literature, which begins with the Enlightenment. Middle Ages (11th – 15th centuries) According to commit4fitness, Christianization…

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Polish Modern Arts

Polish Modern Arts

19th Century In architecture (“Great Theater” in Warsaw), historicism tied in with classicist models, and since around 1830 also with neo-Gothic. A national development became more apparent in painting than in architecture. The main master of Romanticism was P. Michałowski with horse, battle and genre scenes as well as portraits in a loose, sketchy style. J. Matejko’s monumental historical pictures (“Rejtan”, 1866, “Battle of Grunewald”, 1878; both Warsaw, Muzeum Narodowe)…

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Polish Arts

Polish Arts

Polish art, the name for the independent style variants that developed for the first time in the 14th century and which took on an emphatically national character around 1800. Since the beginning in the 10th century, according to computergees, the art of Poland has been under changing influences from Central Europe and Italy. Romanesque The first medieval buildings are round chapels like those of Saints Felix and Adaukt (end of…

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Polish History

Polish History

Polish history becomes tangible in the national sense after Christianization in 966/967 under the Piast dynasty. Poland has a common prehistory with Central and Eastern Europe. Around 1500 Poland reached almost as far as the Black Sea and united many peoples under one ruler. In the 18th century it was divided among the neighboring great powers. After World War II and decades under a communist regime, Poland experienced a new…

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The Kingdom of Poland (1320–1795) Part II

The Kingdom of Poland 2

Among the last Jagiellonians Zygmunt I. Stary (Sigismund I, the Old, 1506–48) and Zygmunt (Sigismund) II. August (1548–72) Poland experienced its »golden age« in the area of ​​constitutional and political as well as literary and artistic matters. The urban population was captured early by the Lutheran Reformation, parts of the nobility after 1540 by the Calvinist Reformation. After the Union of Brest in 1595/96, many Orthodox submitted to the Pope’s…

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The Kingdom of Poland (1320–1795) Part I

The Kingdom of Poland 1

The Piasts The consolidation policy initiated by Władysław I. was by his son Kazimierz III. Wielki (Casimir the Great, 1333–70), successfully continued, with the development of the country (German eastern settlement) and the establishment of a functioning administration was the main concern. His generous policy towards the Jews encouraged their immigration. In the simmering conflict with Bohemia over Silesia and with the religious order around Pomerania (Peace of Kalisch [Kalisz],…

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Nation without a State – Divided Poland (1795–1918)

Divided Poland

The partitioning powers endeavored to consolidate their acquired territories quickly and to adapt them to the conditions prevailing in their states. The hope of being able to induce Napoleon I to restore Polish statehood by deploying a legion set up by J. H. Dąbrowski in Italy seemed to be fulfilled after the Prussian defeat in 1806. The Duchy of Warsaw, formed in the summer of 1807 from Prussian partition gains…

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Poland Between the World Wars (1918-39)

Poland Between the World Wars

After congress Poland and western Galicia, most of the province of Posen and in the spring also eastern Galicia and the north-eastern districts as far as Vilnius could be occupied by military forces. It was thanks to the work of Prime MinisterPaderewski and Dmowski that Poland, in the Treaty of Versailles, had almost all of Poznan and large parts of West Prussia left the Vistula (Polish Corridor) and plebiscites were…

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Poland in World War II

Poland in World War II

The numerical and technical inferiority, as well as the intervention of the Red Army on September 17, caused the swift surrender of the Polish armed forces. A border and friendship treaty established the German-Soviet demarcation line along the Bug on September 28th. Among the around 13 million residents in those annexed by the USSR and on 1/2. 11. In 1939 the Eastern Polish territories incorporated into the Byelorussian and Ukrainian…

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Poland as a People’s Democracy Part II

Poland as a People's Democracy 2

The participation of Polish troops in the defeat of the “Prague Spring” in August 1968 damaged Poland’s international prestige. The readiness offered by Gomułka in May 1969 and taken up by the social-liberal coalition in Bonn to negotiate the normalization of mutual relations on the basis of a border treaty resulted in the signing of the Warsaw Treaty on December 7, 1970 after difficult negotiations. In 1972 the two states…

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Poland as a People’s Democracy Part I

Poland as a People's Democracy 1

Under Stalinist rule (1945–56) According to ezinereligion, the Second World War claimed around 6 million deaths from Poland – including over 85% of the Jewish population – and cost the country around 38% of its national wealth. The economic policy decisions already made by the Lublin Committee on August 15, 1944 included the expropriation of large estates in favor of small farmers and the nationalization of industry and banks. In…

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The Republic of Poland (since 1989) Part IV

The Republic of Poland 4

Polish heads of state The Polish heads of state Piasts Mieszko I. around 960-992 Bolesław I. Chrobry (“The Brave”) 992-1025 Mieszko II. Lambert 1025-1034 Kazimierz (Casimir) I. Odnowiciel (“the innovator”) 1034 / 39-1058 Bolesław II. Śmiały (“the bold”) or Szczodry (“the generous”) 1058-1079 / 81 Wladyslaw I. Herman 1079-1102 Zbigniew and Bolesław III. Krzywousty (»crooked mouth«) 1102-1107 Bolesław III. Krzywousty 1107-1138 Ruling princes of Cracow (senior citizens) during the time…

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The Republic of Poland (since 1989) Part III

The Republic of Poland 3

In view of these developments, the EU Commission first initiated the procedure established in 2014 to review the rule of law. On January 28, 2016, the Polish parliament approved a reform of the judiciary that subordinated all public prosecutor’s offices to the Ministry of Justice and made the Minister of Justice the General Prosecutor. On March 9, 2016, the Constitutional Court declared the law on the new organizational form of…

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The Republic of Poland (since 1989) Part II

The Republic of Poland 1

The presidencies of Kaczyński, Komorowski and Duda The parliamentary elections on September 25, 2005 led to another change of power: the SLD, which had previously ruled, only received 11.3% of the votes (55 MPs); the election winners PiS (26.99% of the votes; 155 seats) and PO (24.1%; 133 seats) initially set course for the formation of a coalition government. The chairman of the PiS, Jarosław Kaczyński, initially renounced the office…

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The Republic of Poland (since 1989) Part I

The Republic of Poland

The presidencies of L. Wałęsa and A. Kwaśniewski As part of the constitutional amendments passed in December 1989, according to hyperrestaurant, the state designation “Republic of Poland” was reintroduced (since then it has often been referred to as the “Third Polish Republic”). In January 1990 the communist PZPR disbanded and some of its members founded the Social Democracy of the Republic of Poland (SdRP). In December 1990 Wałęsa was elected…

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Posen, Poland

Posen, Poland

Posen, Polish Poznan [ p ɔ ZNA  n], capital of the province large, Poland, town circle and circle city, 52 m – 104 m above the sea level, at the Wartheland, (2018) 536,400 residents. According to internetsailors, Poznan is the seat of the Catholic archbishopric; cultural and economic center of Greater Poland with Adam Mickiewicz University (founded in 1919), technical, medical, agricultural university, economic university, art university, music academy,…

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Wroclaw, Poland Cityscape

Wroclaw, Poland Cityscape

According to mathgeneral, Breslau (Polish Wrocław), is a city ​​in Poland, on both sides of the Oder in Silesia, with (2018) 640 600 residents. The city, rebuilt after its destruction in World War II, is the cultural, scientific and economic center of Silesia with several universities and colleges, museums and theaters. The economy is characterized by a diverse industry. Wroclaw is an important commercial and financial center and a popular…

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Wroclaw, Poland

Wroclaw, Poland

According to militarynous, Wroclaw, Polish Wrocław [ vr ɔ ts  af], is the capital of Lower Silesia, Poland, city district and county seat, (2018) 640 600 residents. Wroclaw is located 120 m above sea level in the middle of the fertile Lower Silesian lowlands at the mouth of the Ohle, on both sides of the Oder, which divides into several arms here. The districts are connected by more than…

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Lodz, Poland

Lodz, Poland

Lodz [l ɔ t ʃ ], Polish Łódź [  ut ɕ ], capital of the voivodeship of the same name in central Poland, 235 m above sea level, with (2018) 685 300 residents the third largest city in the country. Lodz is the Catholic bishopric and has a university (founded in 1945), TU (founded in 1945 as TH), medical university and music academy, several colleges (including the University of…

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Krakow, Poland Cityscape

Krakow, Poland Cityscape

According to neovideogames, Krakow (Polish: Kraków), is a city ​​in southern Poland, located on the upper Vistula, with (2018) 771 100 residents. Krakow is a city of science and art. There are several universities, research institutes and numerous museums. The city was heavily industrialized after the Second World War, especially with the ironworks combine in the Nowa Huta district. After the decline of the iron and steel industry, Krakow has…

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Krakow, Poland

Krakow, Poland

According to oxfordastronomy, Kraków, Polish Kraków [-kuf], is the capital of the Lesser Poland Voivodeship, southern Poland, urban district and district town on the upper Vistula, 212 m above sea level, with (2018) 771 100 residents the second largest city in Poland. Besides Warsaw, Krakow is the most important cultural center in Poland and a European art metropolis; catholic archbishop’s seat; Jagiellonian University (founded in 1364; oldest Polish university), Technical…

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Warsaw, Poland Cityscape

Warsaw, Poland Cityscape

The city, which was largely destroyed in the Second World War, was rebuilt after 1945, and the reconstructed historic buildings in the old town were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. The royal palace, a former Gothic castle (13th / 14th century) of the princes of Mazovia, was rebuilt several times (as the residence of the Polish kings) (1569 by F. Parr and Giovanni Battista Quadro [† 1590/91]; 1740–47…

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Warsaw, Poland

Warsaw, Poland

According to pharmacylib, Warsaw, Polish Warszawa [var ʃ ava], is the capital of Poland, and administrative center of the Mazovia province, on the Vistula (2017) 1.76 million residents in the greater Warsaw about 3.1 million residents. Warsaw extends to around 517 km 2 at 90–115 m above sea level on both sides of the Vistula. It is the largest city in Poland in terms of area and population. The historic…

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World Heritages in Poland

Peace churches in Jawor and Swidnica

Tarnowskie Góry Historic Mine (World Heritage) In the Upper Silesian mining region around Tarnowskie Gory, zinc and lead, and later also silver, have been mined since the 12th century. The system used to pump the water out of the mine is one of the technical masterpieces of the 19th century. Tarnowskie Góry Historical Mine: Facts Official title: Tarnowskie Góry lead-silver-zinc mine and its underground water management system Cultural monument: Continent:…

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Centennial Hall in Wroclaw (World Heritage)

Centennial Hall in Wroclaw

The hall, built by Max Berg from 1911 to 1913, is an important example of modern reinforced concrete architecture. It formed the center of the Wroclaw Exhibition Center. At that time, the dome was the largest of its kind with a diameter of 65 m and a height of 42 m. Centennial Hall in Wroclaw: facts Official title: Centennial Hall in Wroclaw Cultural monument: Reinforced concrete multipurpose hall for events…

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