Tag Archives: Poland

Poland, often referred to as the “Heart of Europe” or the “Republic of Poland,” is a Central European country with a rich history, diverse landscapes, and a vibrant cultural heritage. Warsaw, the capital and largest city, is a dynamic hub of politics, culture, and commerce. With a population exceeding 38 million people, Poland is known for its resilience, having navigated significant historical challenges, including partition and occupation. The nation regained independence in 1918 and has since evolved into a democratic republic. Polish is the official language, and the majority of the population identifies with Roman Catholicism. Poland’s landscapes range from the Carpathian Mountains to the Baltic Sea, offering a mix of picturesque countryside and historic cities. The nickname “Heart of Europe” underscores Poland’s strategic location at the crossroads of Eastern and Western Europe. Poland actively engages in regional and international affairs, emphasizing cooperation within the European Union and NATO. The economy has seen remarkable growth, with sectors like manufacturing, services, and technology playing crucial roles. Efforts to address social issues, infrastructure development, and environmental conservation are ongoing. Polish cuisine features hearty dishes like pierogi, kielbasa, and bigos, reflecting the country’s culinary traditions. As Poland continues its journey of economic development and cultural preservation, it remains a nation where medieval castles stand alongside modern architecture, inviting visitors to explore its historical legacy, natural beauty, and the dynamic spirit of the “Heart of Europe. ” Check andyeducation for Poland School and Education.

Poland History

Poland – national flag The flag was officially adopted in 1919. Its colors are derived from Poland’s old coat of arms from the 1200’s: a red shield with a white, crowned eagle. This weapon has throughout the ages been used as a symbol of Poland’s freedom struggle; 1944-89 it was used without the crown. The… Read More »

Poland Trade and Foreign Investment

Subchapters: Business Relationships Foreign direct investment FTAs ​​and Treaties Development Cooperation Prospective fields of study (MOP) Business relations Trade relations with the EU According to data from the Polish Statistical Office for January to December 2021, economically developed countries (as defined by the IMF) are the main target of Polish exports with a share of… Read More »

Cities and Resorts in Poland

Świnoujście Świnoujście, or Świnoujście, is a city on the coast, almost at the border with Germany, with modern hotels, holiday homes, beaches and ample opportunities for treatment. Beaches The resort is famous for the largest and cleanest sandy beach in the country. It is framed by pine trees, so you can breathe clean air while… Read More »

Poland Modern History

With Casimir IV Iagellone (1447-92), successor of Ladislao, the Poland reached the maximum territorial expansion and the highest political influence for the ties with Bohemia and Hungary, ruled by King Ladislao Iagellone, and with the vassal states of Moldavia and the Teutonic Order. From the second half of the 15th century. the aristocratic monarchy was transformed into… Read More »

Polish Philosophy

Polish philosophy, collective term for the philosophical theories and systems that began in the 13th century. Many thinkers received their training at Italian universities (in the 15th century also in Prague and Vienna); they wrote their works in Latin. Up to the 18th century the scholasticism of the influential Jesuit order was formative. In the… Read More »

Polish Music

Polish music, term for the music of the Polish language and cultural area. The oldest musical tradition can be found in the folk song, which is still alive today and whose peculiarities include five-step scales (pentatonic), church keys, asymmetrical rhythms and short melodic formations. There is evidence of the dance song as early as 1100,… Read More »

Polish Literature Part IV

After 1989 – between continuity and change The separation of Poland from the Soviet sphere of influence and the transition to democracy and a market economy in 1989 brought Polish literature, similar to the literatures of other states of the former Eastern Bloc, the final elimination of censorship and political and ideological constraints. With the… Read More »

Polish Literature Part III

Interwar period (1918-39) After the establishment of statehood, ideological and artistic contradictions emerged more clearly in literary groups and were more sharply expressed in literature, with aesthetic issues predominating. In addition to the older poets B. Leśmian and L. Staff, new groups of poets formed around magazines: for example »Skamander« (1920 ff.), Who advocated everyday… Read More »

Polish Literature Part II

At the same time sensitive works (ballads, idylls, novels) appeared. Brodziński introduced the Polish public to Romanticism through his treatise “O klasyczności i romantyczności” (1818). The interest in history, folklore and feeling favored the emergence of romanticism, which was brought about by »Ballady i romanse« (1822; German »Balladen und Romanzen«) as well as »Grażyna« (1823;… Read More »

Polish Literature Part I

Polish literature, collective name for the earliest evidence written in Latin from the 11th century. Polish language monuments are only known from the 14th century. Polish literature is divided into two main currents: the Old Polish Epoch (12th to mid-18th centuries), which includes the Middle Ages, Renaissance and Baroque, and the more recent Polish literature,… Read More »

Polish Modern Arts

19th Century In architecture (“Great Theater” in Warsaw), historicism tied in with classicist models, and since around 1830 also with neo-Gothic. A national development became more apparent in painting than in architecture. The main master of Romanticism was P. Michałowski with horse, battle and genre scenes as well as portraits in a loose, sketchy style.… Read More »

Polish Arts

Polish art, the name for the independent style variants that developed for the first time in the 14th century and which took on an emphatically national character around 1800. Since the beginning in the 10th century, according to computergees, the art of Poland has been under changing influences from Central Europe and Italy. Romanesque The… Read More »

Polish History

Polish history becomes tangible in the national sense after Christianization in 966/967 under the Piast dynasty. Poland has a common prehistory with Central and Eastern Europe. Around 1500 Poland reached almost as far as the Black Sea and united many peoples under one ruler. In the 18th century it was divided among the neighboring great… Read More »

The Kingdom of Poland (1320–1795) Part II

Among the last Jagiellonians Zygmunt I. Stary (Sigismund I, the Old, 1506–48) and Zygmunt (Sigismund) II. August (1548–72) Poland experienced its »golden age« in the area of ​​constitutional and political as well as literary and artistic matters. The urban population was captured early by the Lutheran Reformation, parts of the nobility after 1540 by the… Read More »

The Kingdom of Poland (1320–1795) Part I

The Piasts The consolidation policy initiated by Władysław I. was by his son Kazimierz III. Wielki (Casimir the Great, 1333–70), successfully continued, with the development of the country (German eastern settlement) and the establishment of a functioning administration was the main concern. His generous policy towards the Jews encouraged their immigration. In the simmering conflict… Read More »

Nation without a State – Divided Poland (1795–1918)

The partitioning powers endeavored to consolidate their acquired territories quickly and to adapt them to the conditions prevailing in their states. The hope of being able to induce Napoleon I to restore Polish statehood by deploying a legion set up by J. H. Dąbrowski in Italy seemed to be fulfilled after the Prussian defeat in… Read More »

Poland Between the World Wars (1918-39)

After congress Poland and western Galicia, most of the province of Posen and in the spring also eastern Galicia and the north-eastern districts as far as Vilnius could be occupied by military forces. It was thanks to the work of Prime MinisterPaderewski and Dmowski that Poland, in the Treaty of Versailles, had almost all of… Read More »

Poland in World War II

The numerical and technical inferiority, as well as the intervention of the Red Army on September 17, caused the swift surrender of the Polish armed forces. A border and friendship treaty established the German-Soviet demarcation line along the Bug on September 28th. Among the around 13 million residents in those annexed by the USSR and… Read More »

Poland as a People’s Democracy Part II

The participation of Polish troops in the defeat of the “Prague Spring” in August 1968 damaged Poland’s international prestige. The readiness offered by Gomułka in May 1969 and taken up by the social-liberal coalition in Bonn to negotiate the normalization of mutual relations on the basis of a border treaty resulted in the signing of… Read More »

Poland as a People’s Democracy Part I

Under Stalinist rule (1945–56) According to ezinereligion, the Second World War claimed around 6 million deaths from Poland – including over 85% of the Jewish population – and cost the country around 38% of its national wealth. The economic policy decisions already made by the Lublin Committee on August 15, 1944 included the expropriation of… Read More »

The Republic of Poland (since 1989) Part IV

Polish heads of state The Polish heads of state Piasts Mieszko I. around 960-992 Bolesław I. Chrobry (“The Brave”) 992-1025 Mieszko II. Lambert 1025-1034 Kazimierz (Casimir) I. Odnowiciel (“the innovator”) 1034 / 39-1058 Bolesław II. Śmiały (“the bold”) or Szczodry (“the generous”) 1058-1079 / 81 Wladyslaw I. Herman 1079-1102 Zbigniew and Bolesław III. Krzywousty (»crooked… Read More »

The Republic of Poland (since 1989) Part III

In view of these developments, the EU Commission first initiated the procedure established in 2014 to review the rule of law. On January 28, 2016, the Polish parliament approved a reform of the judiciary that subordinated all public prosecutor’s offices to the Ministry of Justice and made the Minister of Justice the General Prosecutor. On… Read More »

The Republic of Poland (since 1989) Part II

The presidencies of Kaczyński, Komorowski and Duda The parliamentary elections on September 25, 2005 led to another change of power: the SLD, which had previously ruled, only received 11.3% of the votes (55 MPs); the election winners PiS (26.99% of the votes; 155 seats) and PO (24.1%; 133 seats) initially set course for the formation… Read More »

The Republic of Poland (since 1989) Part I

The presidencies of L. Wałęsa and A. Kwaśniewski As part of the constitutional amendments passed in December 1989, according to hyperrestaurant, the state designation “Republic of Poland” was reintroduced (since then it has often been referred to as the “Third Polish Republic”). In January 1990 the communist PZPR disbanded and some of its members founded… Read More »

Posen, Poland

Posen, Polish Poznan [ p ɔ ZNA  n], capital of the province large, Poland, town circle and circle city, 52 m – 104 m above the sea level, at the Wartheland, (2018) 536,400 residents. According to internetsailors, Poznan is the seat of the Catholic archbishopric; cultural and economic center of Greater Poland with Adam… Read More »

Wroclaw, Poland Cityscape

According to mathgeneral, Breslau (Polish Wrocław), is a city ​​in Poland, on both sides of the Oder in Silesia, with (2018) 640 600 residents. The city, rebuilt after its destruction in World War II, is the cultural, scientific and economic center of Silesia with several universities and colleges, museums and theaters. The economy is characterized… Read More »

Wroclaw, Poland

According to militarynous, Wroclaw, Polish Wrocław [ vr ɔ ts  af], is the capital of Lower Silesia, Poland, city district and county seat, (2018) 640 600 residents. Wroclaw is located 120 m above sea level in the middle of the fertile Lower Silesian lowlands at the mouth of the Ohle, on both sides of… Read More »

Lodz, Poland

Lodz [l ɔ t ʃ ], Polish Łódź [  ut ɕ ], capital of the voivodeship of the same name in central Poland, 235 m above sea level, with (2018) 685 300 residents the third largest city in the country. Lodz is the Catholic bishopric and has a university (founded in 1945), TU (founded… Read More »

Krakow, Poland Cityscape

According to neovideogames, Krakow (Polish: Kraków), is a city ​​in southern Poland, located on the upper Vistula, with (2018) 771 100 residents. Krakow is a city of science and art. There are several universities, research institutes and numerous museums. The city was heavily industrialized after the Second World War, especially with the ironworks combine in… Read More »

Krakow, Poland

According to eningbo, Kraków, Polish Kraków [-kuf], is the capital of the Lesser Poland Voivodeship, southern Poland, urban district and district town on the upper Vistula, 212 m above sea level, with (2018) 771 100 residents the second largest city in Poland. Besides Warsaw, Krakow is the most important cultural center in Poland and a… Read More »