The Republic of Poland 4

Polish heads of state

The Polish heads of state
Piasts
Mieszko I. around 960-992
Bolesław I. Chrobry (“The Brave”) 992-1025
Mieszko II. Lambert 1025-1034
Kazimierz (Casimir) I. Odnowiciel (“the innovator”) 1034 / 39-1058
Bolesław II. Śmiały (“the bold”) or Szczodry (“the generous”) 1058-1079 / 81
Wladyslaw I. Herman 1079-1102
Zbigniew and Bolesław III. Krzywousty (»crooked mouth«) 1102-1107
Bolesław III. Krzywousty 1107-1138
Ruling princes of Cracow (senior citizens) during the time of the partial principalities
Władysław II. Wyganiec (“the expellee”) 1138-1146
Bolesław IV. Kędzierzawy (“Frizzy Hair”) 1146-1173
Mieszko III. Stary (“the old one”) 1173-1177
Kazimierz (Casimir) II. Sprawiedliwy (“the righteous”) 1177-1194
Mieszko III. Stary 1198-1202
Władysław Laskonogi (»Stiff Bone«) 1202
Leszek Biały (“the white one”) 1202-1210
Mieszko Plątonogi (»dangling leg«) 1210-1211
Leszek Biały 1211-1227
Wladyslaw Laskonogi 1227-1229
Conrad I of Mazovia 1229-1232
Henryk (Heinrich) I. Brodaty (“the bearded one”) 1232-1238
Henryk (Heinrich) Pobożny (»the pious«) 1238-1241
Conrad I of Mazovia 1241-1243
Bolesław V. Wstydliwy (»the Chaste«) 1243-1279
Leszek Czarny (“the black one”) 1279-1288
Henryk (Heinrich) Probus 1288-1290
Przemysł II (1295/96 Polish King) 1290-1291
Wenceslas II of Bohemia (from the Přemyslid dynasty, Polish king from 1300) 1291-1305
Wenceslaus III of Bohemia 1305-1306
United Kingdom of Poland
Władysław I. Łokietek (“Ellenlang”) (King from 1320) 1306-1333
Kazimierz (Casimir) III. Wielki (“the big one”) 1333-1370
Anjou
Ludwig I Wielki (“the great”) 1370-1382
Jadwiga (Hedwig) 1382-1386 / 99
Jagiellonian
Wladyslaw II (Jagiello) 1386-1434
Wladyslaw III 1434-1444
Kazimierz (Casimir) IV. Andrew 1447-1492
Jan I. Olbracht (Johann I. Albrecht) 1492-1501
Alexander 1501-1506
Zygmunt I. Stary (Sigismund I, the Old or the Great) 1506-1548
Zygmunt (Sigismund) August II 1548-1572
Electoral Kings
Henry III. (from France) 1573-1574 / 75
Stephan IV. Báthory 1575 / 76-1586
Zygmunt (Sigismund) III. Wasa 1587-1632
Władysław IV. Wasa 1632-1648
Jan II. Kazimierz (Johann Casimir) Wasa 1648-1668
Michael Korybut Wiśniowiecki 1669-1673
Jan (Johann) III. Sobieski 1674-1696
August II, the strong 1697-1706
Stanisław (Stanislaus) I. Leszczyński 1704 / 06-1709
August II, the strong 1709-1733
Stanisław (Stanislaus) I. Leszczyński 1733-1736
August III 1733-1763
Stanisław (Stanislaus) II August Poniatowski 1764-1795
President of the Republic of Poland
J. Piłsudski (“Head of State”) 1918-1922
G. Narutowicz 1922
S. Wojciechowski 1922-1926
I. Mościcki 1926-1939
W. Raczkiewicz (in exile) 1939-1947
Chairman of the State National Council
B. Bierut 1944-1947
President of the (People’s Democratic) Republic of Poland
B. Bierut 1947-1952
Chairwoman of the State Council of the People’s Republic of Poland
A. Zawadzki 1952-1964
E. Ochab 1964-1968
M. Spychalski 1968-1970
J. Cyrankiewicz 1970-1972
H. Jabłonski 1972-1985
W. Jaruzelski 1985-1989
President of the Republic of Poland
W. Jaruzelski 1989-1990
L. Wałęsa 1990-1995
A. Kwaśniewski 1995-2005
L. Kaczyński 2005-2010
B. Komorowski 2010-2015
A. Duda since 2015

Foreign and Security Policy (since 1990)

Poland’s new foreign and security policy orientation since 1990 was reflected in particular in European policy, regional policy with the seven immediate neighbors and in relation to the USA. The main goal of Polish foreign policy was full integration into the Western political and security community, v. a. to NATO and EG / EU. A fundamental change occurred in Polish-German relations (1990 Foreign Minister K. Skubiszewski  : »German-Polish community of interests in Europe«). The German-Polish border treaty signed in November 1990 (Establishing the Oder-Neisse line as the final German-Polish border) a neighborhood treaty with Germany followed in June 1991. Since 2002 at the latest, the positive development of German-Polish relations has been partially impaired by different attitudes on issues of international security policy (Iraq crisis and Iraq war), European policy (European constitution) and past politics (center against expulsions).

The endeavor to establish an active neighborhood policy led, inter alia, to 1991 on the participation of Poland in the Visegrád initiative. In November 1991, according to franciscogardening, Poland became a full member of the Council of Europe, and in December 1991 it concluded an association agreement with the EC (this »Europe Treaty« entered into force on 1.2.1994). In addition to the primary goal of integration with the West, Poland endeavored to improve its relations with Russia, whose last troops still stationed in Poland left the country on September 17, 1993, and also with Ukraine (1997 “Declaration on Understanding and Reconciliation”). On April 8th, 1994 the Polish government applied for the admission of their country to the EU; Official membership negotiations began on March 31, 1998.

After the Sejm approved membership on February 17, 1999, Poland became a member of NATO on March 12, 1999. In the Iraq conflict, in which Poland supported American politics, in 2003 the country participated with a small contingent in the intervention troops led by the USA.

The EU summit in Copenhagen (12/13 December 2002; conclusion of the accession negotiations) paved the way for Poland’s admission to the Community. On April 16, 2003, Poland signed the accession treaties together with the other EU candidate countries; in a referendum on 7./8. 6. In 2003, almost 77.5% of Polish voters (with a turnout of 59%) voted for their country’s accession to the EU, which took place on May 1, 2004. In 2009 President L. Kaczyński signed the Lisbon Treaty.

Relations with Russia have been strained since 2007 by plans by the USA to station a missile defense system in Poland and the Czech Republic, as well as by the Polish partisanship for Georgia in the Caucasus conflict in 2008.

On May 8, 2010, the Russian President D. Medvedev presented Poland with files on Katyn. The high point of the reconciliation was the Duma apology for the Katyn crimes on November 26th, 2010 and a state visit by Medvedev on December 6th and 7th, 2010.

In 2013/14, the Ukraine crisis became the focus of Polish foreign and security policy. In the course of this crisis, relations with Russia were again strained, while Poland sought to strengthen security cooperation with the USA. In April 2014, an agreement on “Solidarity and Partnership” was signed in Washington. At its July 2016 summit in Warsaw, NATO decided to station up to 1,000 soldiers each in Poland and the three Baltic states from 2017. In October 2016, Russia’s relocation of nuclear-capable short-range missiles to Kaliningrad in Poland raised concerns.

Against the background of the refugee and migration crisis in Europe that escalated in 2015/16, Poland was not prepared to accept any significant number of refugees. On the occasion of the World Youth Day of the Roman Catholic Church in Krakow in July 2016, Pope Francis appealed to the Polish government to allow more refugees into the country.

The Republic of Poland 4