Wroclaw, Poland

According to militarynous, Wroclaw, Polish Wrocław [ vr ɔ ts  af], is the capital of Lower Silesia, Poland, city district and county seat, (2018) 640 600 residents.

Wroclaw is located 120 m above sea level in the middle of the fertile Lower Silesian lowlands at the mouth of the Ohle, on both sides of the Oder, which divides into several arms here. The districts are connected by more than 80 bridges. Wroclaw is the largest city and the scientific, cultural and economic center of Lower Silesia. It is the seat of the archbishop and has a university (founded in 1702 as a university, since 1811 university), technical university (founded in 1945), business university, natural science university, medical university and other higher educational institutions (universities of music and sport, papal theological faculty, academy for art and Arts and Crafts), Department of the Polish Academy of Sciences, numerous scientific institutes, including for regional research on Silesia and Bohemia, many museums (including national, historical, archeology, folklore, medals, architecture, post and telecommunications, archdiocesan museum); Rotunda with a large panoramic painting of the Battle of Racławice, Ossolineum library, opera, operetta theater, six theaters (including a well-known puppet theater), philharmonic orchestra, film studio and publishers. In addition, Wroclaw has a botanical and a zoological garden and an observatory. Film studio and publishers. In addition, Wroclaw has a botanical and a zoological garden and an observatory. Film studio and publishers. In addition, Wroclaw has a botanical and a zoological garden and an observatory.

The industry is diverse, the most important branches are mechanical engineering and vehicle construction, metal processing and chemical industry, furthermore electrotechnical / electronic, textile and food industry, publishing and printing industry. In the 1990s, major industrial change, restructuring and modernization of many large companies, as well as new investments (e.g. electrical and household appliances), growth in the service sector (trade, banking, finance and other business-oriented services), and associated changes in the city center (City building); Tourism; Transport hub, inland port with shipyard, international Copernicus airport.


Around 900 the castle was founded from Bohemia. The name of the city (initially Wrotizla) probably goes back to the Bohemian Duke Wratislav I († 921) return. Located in the territory of the Polish Piast dynasty since around 990, it has been the seat of a partial duchy of the Silesian Piasts since the 12th century. At the beginning of the 13th century, a German town emerged on the left bank of the Oder, which was burned down by the Mongols in 1241, but was quickly rebuilt, received Magdeburg law in 1261 and in 1327 was united with the cloth maker Neustadt, which was independently built in 1263. In 1335 Breslau and Silesia became part of Bohemia. Since the second half of the 14th century, Breslau belonged to the Hanseatic League (membership until 1474). In 1523 the city introduced the Reformation. In 1526 it came to the Habsburgs along with Bohemia. Occupied by Prussian troops in August 1741, the city and Silesia fell through the Breslau Preliminary Peace of June 11, 1742 to Prussia (Wroclaw Treaty).

Breslau was involved in the uprising against Napoleon I; here King Friedrich Wilhelm III. of Prussia the “Appeal to my People” (March 17, 1813). As the metropolis of Silesia, Breslau rose to become the most important city in East Germany at the time. Due to the industrial development in the 19th century, the population grew by leaps and bounds (1811: 62,000, 1890: around 400,000). As the “Breslau Fortress”, the city was fiercely contested from February to May 1945 and suffered severe damage; around 80,000 civilians died in the city encircled by Soviet troops, many more on the run. Most of the remaining or returned Germans were expelled in 1945 or in the years thereafter. a. Central Polish population groups or people from the eastern Polish territories annexed by the Soviet Union in 1939 or 1944 (“Kresy”) settled here (including from Lemberg). In 1945 Breslau became Polish (finally recognized by Germany in the German-Polish border confirmation treaty of 1990). In 1997 the city was badly affected by the Oder flood disaster. Until 1998, Wroclaw was the capital of the dissolved Wrocław Voivodeship. In 2016, Wroclaw was European Capital of Culture together with the Spanish city of Donostia-San Sebastián.

Wroclaw, Poland